Neural Plasticity / 2019 / Article / Tab 4

Research Article

The Modulatory Effect of Cerebrovascular Burden in Response to Cognitive Stimulation in Healthy Ageing and Mild Cognitive Impairment

Table 4

Results of the two-way mixed ANOVAs assessing the interaction between WML group and treatment on cognitive performance.

Low WMLHigh WMLANOVA for interaction and main effectsBox’s M
Baseline (mean)Retest (mean)Baseline (mean)Retest (mean)ANOVA interactionANOVA treatmentANOVA WML

Healthy ageing
Phonemic fluency3443.081331.4238.33120.6160.0010.4260.049
Semantic fluency44.5449.621341.6743.75120.5110.1240.2670.006
Digit cancellation55.2354.461352.7554.58120.1040.4960.4750.756
Similarities20.3822.541320.7521.67120.3720.0340.8620.072
Rey figure—memory16.7721.731315.9616.75120.1030.0280.2030.54
Stroop—time interference18.0417.081320.3321.13120.3990.9340.2570.524
Prose—immediate memory9.3812.77138.0810.75120.629<0.0010.2060.91
Prose—delayed memory12.6916.381310.8312.83120.193<0.0010.1050.421
Paired associate learning13.2714.461312.5414.26120.8440.0960.70.715
MCI
Phonemic fluency25.4525.731131.0930.45110.7250.6660.2210.755
Semantic fluency29.3630.091127.7328110.8610.7010.6060.555
Digit cancellation44.1846.551145.8250.27110.4240.0150.4570.902
Similarities18.0916.731120.0920110.4340.3720.1940.653
Rey figure—memory7.239.68118.4110.32110.760.0220.6610.356
Stroop—time interference48.2358.091136.1529.6100.1130.7410.107<0.001
Prose—immediate memory5.457116.648.73110.7480.0420.2120.048
Prose—delayed memory5.557.18118.279.45110.7370.0480.0850.981
Paired associate learning8.238.77119.189.46110.7290.3050.5340.688

Note: indicates significance when corrected for multiple comparisons (). Significant Box’s M () indicates violation of the assumption of homogeneity of covariance matrices. Stroop—time interference: lower value indicates better performance.