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Neural Plasticity
Volume 2019, Article ID 7647204, 12 pages
Research Article

Power Spectral Density and Functional Connectivity Changes due to a Sensorimotor Neurofeedback Training: A Preliminary Study

1Research Institute on Health Sciences (IUNICS), University of Balearic Islands, 07122 Palma, Spain
2Brain, Mind and Behavior Research Center, University of Granada (CIMCYC-UGR), 18011 Granada, Spain
3University Ramon Llull, Blanquerna, FPCEE, 08022 Barcelona, Spain
4Departamento de Ingeniería Gráfica, Universitat Politècnica de València, 46022 Valencia, Spain

Correspondence should be addressed to Miguel A. Muñoz; se.rgu@zoumam

Received 10 February 2019; Accepted 3 April 2019; Published 5 May 2019

Academic Editor: Takashi Hanakawa

Copyright © 2019 Juan L. Terrasa et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Neurofeedback is a form of neuromodulation based on learning to modify some aspects of cortical activity. Sensorimotor rhythm (SMR) oscillation is one of the most used frequency bands in neurofeedback. Several studies have shown that subjects can learn to modulate SMR power to control output devices, but little is known about possible related changes in brain networks. The aim of this study was to investigate the enhanced performance and changes in EEG power spectral density at somatosensory cerebral areas due to a bidirectional modulation-based SMR neurofeedback training. Furthermore, we also analyzed the functional changes in somatosensory areas during resting state induced by the training as exploratory procedure. A six-session neurofeedback protocol based on learning to synchronize and desynchronize (modulate) the SMR was implemented. Moreover, half of the participants were enrolled in two functional magnetic resonance imaging resting-state sessions (before and after the training). At the end of the training, participants showed a successful performance enhancement, an increase in SMR power specific to somatosensory locations, and higher functional connectivity between areas associated with somatosensory activity in resting state. Our research increases the better understanding of the relation between EEG neuromodulation and functional changes and the use of SMR training in clinical practice.