Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Neurology Research International
Volume 2010, Article ID 476018, 15 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2010/476018
Review Article

Transitional Nerve: A New and Original Classification of a Peripheral Nerve Supported by the Nature of the Accessory Nerve (CN XI)

1Departments of Surgery, Oral Maxillofacial Surgery and Integrative Biosciences, Schools of Medicine and Dentistry, Oregon Health and Science University, 611 SW Campus, Room 713, Portland, OR 97239, USA
2Department of Integrative Biosciences, School of Dentistry, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR 97239, USA

Received 21 August 2010; Accepted 14 November 2010

Academic Editor: T. Ben-Hur

Copyright © 2010 Brion Benninger and Jonathan McNeil. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. G. Adelman and B. Smith, Encyclopedia of Neuroscience, Elsevier, New York, NY, USA, 1999.
  2. W. Larsen, Human Embryology, Saunders, Philadelphia, Pa, USA, 3rd edition, 2001.
  3. W. Larsen, Anatomy: Development, Function, Clinical Correlations, Saunders, Philadelphia, Pa, USA, 1st edition, 2002.
  4. S. Waxman, Clinical Neuroanatomy, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY, USA, 2003.
  5. L. Wilson-Pauwels, E. Akesson, P. Stewart, and S. Spacey, Cranial Nerves in Health and Disease, B.C. Decker, Lewiston, NY, USA, 2002.
  6. R. Drake and K. Moses, Gray’s Anatomy for Students, Churchill Livingstone, 2005.
  7. A. Siegel and H. Sapru, Essential Neuroscience, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, Pa, USA, 2006.
  8. R. Snell, Clinical Neuroanatomy, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Piladelphia, Pa, USA, 2005.
  9. L. Gartner, M. Patestas, and M. A. Petestas, A textbook of neuroanatomy, Blackwell, Malden, Mass, USA, 2006.
  10. C. Sinnatamby and R. J. Lasts, Lasts Anatomy: Regional and Applied, Elsevier, London, UK, 11th edition, 2006.
  11. K. Moore and A. Dalley, Clinically Orientated Anatomy, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, Pa, 5th edition, 2006.
  12. M. Fitzgerald, G. Gruener, and E. Mtui, Clinical Neuroanatomy and Neuroscience, Saunders, Philadelphia, Pa, USA, 5th edition, 2007.
  13. M Schuenke, E Schulte, U Schumacher et al., THIEME Atlas of Anatomy, Thieme Medical, New York, NY, USA, 2006.
  14. D. Haines, Neuranatomy: An Atlas of Structures, Sections, and Systems, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, Pa, USA, 2004.
  15. C. M. Goss, “On anatomy of nerves by Galen of Pergamon,” American Journal of Anatomy, vol. 118, no. 2, pp. 327–335, 1966. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. R. O'Rahilly, “On counting cranial nerves,” Acta Anatomica, vol. 133, no. 1, pp. 3–4, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. T. Willis, The Anatomy of the Brain and Nerves, W. Feindel, Ed., McGill University Press, Montreal, Canada, 1965.
  18. T. Willis, Cerebri anatome: cui accessit nervorum descripto et usus, T. Roycroft, London, UK, 1664.
  19. H. A. Skinner, The Origin of Medical Terms, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, Md, USA, 1961.
  20. S. T. Soemmerring, De basi encephali et originibus nervorum cranio egredientium libri quinque, Goettingen, Germany, 1778.
  21. F. Arnold, Icones nervorum capitis, Heidelberg, Germany, 1838.
  22. H. Gray, Anatomy, Descriptive and Surgical, John W. Parker and Son, London, UK, 1st edition, 1858.
  23. A. Kappers, G. Huber, and E. Crosby, The Comparative Anatomy of the Nervous System of Vertebrates, Including Man, vol. 2, Hafner Publishing Company, New York, NY, USA, 1967.
  24. C. Matesz and G. Szekely, “The motor column and sensory projections of the branchial cranial nerves in the frog,” Journal of Comparative Neurology, vol. 178, no. 1, pp. 157–176, 1978. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. H. A. Barbas-Henry and A. H. M. Lohman, “The motor nuclei and primary projections of the IXth, Xth, XIth, and XIIth cranial nerves in the monitor lizard, Varanus exanthematicus,” Journal of Comparative Neurology, vol. 226, no. 4, pp. 565–579, 1984. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. Y. Oka, M. Satou, and K. Ueda, “Morphology and distribution of the motor neurons of the accessory nerve (nXI) in the Japanese toad: a cobaltic lysine study,” Brain Research, vol. 400, no. 2, pp. 383–388, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. Y. Oka, H. Takeuchi, M. Satou, and K. Ueda, “Cobaltic lysine study of the morphology and distribution of the cranial nerve efferent neurons (motoneurons and preganglionic parasympathetic neurons) and rostral spinal motoneurons in the Japanese toad,” Journal of Comparative Neurology, vol. 259, no. 3, pp. 400–423, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. G. Szekely and C. Matesz, “Topography and organization of cranial nerve nuclei in the sand lizard, Lacerta agilis,” Journal of Comparative Neurology, vol. 267, no. 4, pp. 525–544, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. S. Kitamura, T. Nishiguchi, K. Ogata, and A. Sakai, “Neurons of origin of the internal ramus of the rabbit accessory nerve: localization in the dorsal nucleus of the vagus nerve and the nucleus retroambigualis,” Anatomical Record, vol. 224, no. 4, pp. 541–549, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. C. Matesz and G. Székely, “Organization of the ambiguus nucleus in the frog (Rana esculenta),” Journal of Comparative Neurology, vol. 371, no. 2, pp. 258–269, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. N. Lachman, R. D. Acland, and C. Rosse, “Anatomical evidence for the absence of a morphologically distinct cranial root of the accessory nerve in man,” Clinical Anatomy, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 4–10, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. C. C. R. Wiles, B. Wrigley, and J. R. T. Greene, “Re-examination of the medullary rootlets of the accessory and vagus nerves,” Clinical Anatomy, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 19–22, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. P. Hunt and R. Krumlauf, “Deciphering the hox code: Clues to patterning branchial regions of the head,” Cell, vol. 66, no. 6, pp. 1075–1078, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. J. Briscoe, A. Pierani, T. M. Jessell, and J. Ericson, “A homeodomain protein code specifies progenitor cell identity and neuronal fate in the ventral neural tube,” Cell, vol. 101, no. 4, pp. 435–445, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. E. Gilland and R. Baker, “Evolutionary patterns of cranial nerve efferent nuclei in vertebrates,” Brain, Behavior and Evolution, vol. 66, no. 4, pp. 234–254, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. O. Pabst, H. Herbrand, and H. H. Arnold, “Nkx2-9 is a novel homeobox transcription factor which demarcates ventral domains in the developing mouse CNS,” Mechanisms of Development, vol. 73, no. 1, pp. 85–93, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. O. Pabst, J. Rummelies, B. Winter, and H. H. Arnold, “Targeted disruption of the homeobox gene Nkx2.9 reveals a role in development of the spinal accessory nerve,” Development, vol. 130, no. 6, pp. 1193–1202, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. W. Schubert and Z. Kaprielian, “Identification and characterization of a cell surface marker for embryonic rat spinal accessory motor neurons,” Journal of Comparative Neurology, vol. 439, no. 3, pp. 368–383, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. A. K. Dillon, S. C. Fujita, M. P. Matise et al., “Molecular control of spinal accessory motor neuron/axon development in the mouse spinal cord,” Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 25, no. 44, pp. 10119–10130, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. W. Straus and B. Howell, “The spinal accessory nerve and its musculature,” The Quarterly Review of Biology, vol. 11, pp. 387–405, 1936. View at Google Scholar
  41. J. L. Addens, “The motor nuclei and roots of the cranial and first spinal nerves of vertebrates - Part I. Introduction. Cyclostomes,” Zeitschrift für Anatomie und Entwicklungsgeschichte, vol. 101, no. 3-4, pp. 307–410, 1933. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. J. McKenzie, “The development of the sternomastoid and trapezius muscles,” Contributions to Embryology, vol. 37, pp. 123–129, 1962. View at Google Scholar
  43. D. M. Noden, “The embryonic origins of avian cephalic and cervical muscles and associated connective tissues,” American Journal of Anatomy, vol. 168, no. 3, pp. 257–276, 1983. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. A. G. Jacobson, “Somitomers: mesodermal segments of vertebrate embryos,” Development, vol. 104, pp. 209–220, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. R. Huang, Q. Zhi, C. P. Ordahl, and B. Christ, “The fate of the first avian somite,” Anatomy and Embryology, vol. 195, no. 5, pp. 435–449, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. R. Huang, Q. Zhi, K. Patel, J. Wilting, and B. Christ, “Contribution of single somites to the skeleton and muscles of the occipital and cervical regions in avian embryos,” Anatomy and Embryology, vol. 202, no. 5, pp. 375–383, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. D. M. Noden and P. A. Trainor, “Relations and interactions between cranial mesoderm and neural crest populations,” Journal of Anatomy, vol. 207, no. 5, pp. 575–601, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. P. A. Trainor, S. S. Tan, and P. P. L. Tam, “Cranial paraxial mesoderm: regionalisation of cell fate and impact on craniofacial development in mouse embryos,” Development, vol. 120, no. 9, pp. 2397–2408, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. I. Palmeirim, D. Henrique, D. Ish-Horowicz, and O. Pourquié, “Avian hairy gene expression identifies a molecular clock linked to vertebrate segmentation and somitogenesis,” Cell, vol. 91, no. 5, pp. 639–648, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. K. Moore and T. V. N. Persaud, The Developing Human: Clinically Oriented Embryology, Saunders, Philadelphia, Pa, USA, 7th edition, 2003.
  51. M Patestas and L. Gartner, A Textbook of Neuroanatomy, Blackwell Science, Oxford, UK, 2006.
  52. S. P. Meier, “The development of segmentation in the cranial region of vertebrate embryos,” Scanning Electron Microscopy, vol. 1982, no. 3, pp. 1269–1282, 1982. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. T. Matsuoka, P. E. Ahlberg, N. Kessaris et al., “Neural crest origins of the neck and shoulder,” Nature, vol. 436, no. 7049, pp. 347–355, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. D. Black, “The motor nuclei of the cerebral nerves in phylogeny: a study of the phenomena of neurobiotaxis, part I. cyclostomi and pisces,” The Journal of Comparative Neurology, vol. 27, pp. 467–564, 1917. View at Google Scholar
  55. R. Kusakabe and S. Kuratani, “Evolution and developmental patterning of the vertebrate skeletal muscles: perspectives from the lamprey,” Developmental Dynamics, vol. 234, no. 4, pp. 824–834, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. S. Kuratani, T. Ueki, S. Aizawa, and S. Hirano, “Peripheral development of cranial nerves in a cyclostome, Lampetra japonica: morphological distribution of nerve branches and the vertebrate body plan,” Journal of Comparative Neurology, vol. 384, no. 4, pp. 483–500, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. D. Black, “The motor nuclei of the cerebral nerves in phylogeny: a study of the phenomena of neurobiotaxis, part II. amphibia,” The Journal of Comparative Neurology, vol. 28, pp. 379–427, 1917. View at Google Scholar
  58. G. E. Marion, “Mandibular and pharyngeal muscles of Acathias and Raia,” The American Naturalist, vol. 39, no. 468, pp. 891–924, 1905. View at Google Scholar
  59. F. H. Edgeworth, The Cranial Muscles of Vertebrates, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 1935.
  60. R. L. Boord and D. G. Sperry, “Topography and nerve supply of the cucullaris (trapezius) of skates,” Journal of Morphology, vol. 207, no. 2, pp. 165–172, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. D. G. Sperry and R. L. Boord, “Central location of the motoneurons that supply the cucullaris (trapezius) of the clearnose skate, Raja eglanteria,” Brain Research, vol. 582, no. 2, pp. 312–319, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. D. B. Wake, K. C. Nishikawa, U. Dicke, and G. Roth, “Organization of the motor nuclei in the cervical spinal cord of salamanders,” Journal of Comparative Neurology, vol. 278, no. 2, pp. 195–208, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. G. Roth, D. B. Wake, M. H. Wake, and G. Rettig, “Distribution of accessory and hypoglossal nerves in the hindbrain and spinal cord of lungless salamanders, family plethodontidae,” Neuroscience Letters, vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 53–57, 1984. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. G. Manteuffel and C. Naujoks-Manteuffel, “Optic inputs to identified neck-muscle motoneurons of Salamandra salamandra (L.): an intracellular recording study,” Journal fur Hirnforschung, vol. 28, no. 6, pp. 625–632, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. D. Black, “The motor nuclei of the cerebral nerves in phylogeny: a study of the phenomena of neurobiotaxis, part III. reptilia,” The Journal of Comparative Neurology, vol. 32, pp. 61–97, 1920. View at Google Scholar
  66. D. Black, “The motor nuclei of the cerebral nerves in phylogeny: a study of the phenomena of neurobiotaxis, part IV. aves,” The Journal of Comparative Neurology, vol. 34, pp. 233–274, 1922. View at Google Scholar
  67. J. R. Fetcho, “The organization of the motoneurons innervating the axial musculature of vertebrates. II. Florida water snakes (Nerodia fasciata pictiventris),” Journal of Comparative Neurology, vol. 249, no. 4, pp. 551–563, 1986. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. E. L. Auen and D. A. Langebartel, “The cranial nerves of the colubrid snakes Elaphe and Thamnophis,” Journal of Morphology, vol. 154, no. 2, pp. 205–222, 1977. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. M. Berry and A. W. Rogers, “The migration of neuroblasts in the developing cerebral cortex,” Journal of Anatomy, vol. 99, no. 4, pp. 691–709, 1965. View at Google Scholar
  70. A. R. Eden and M. J. Correia, “An autoradiographic and HRP study of vestibulocollic pathways in the pigeon,” Journal of Comparative Neurology, vol. 211, no. 4, pp. 432–440, 1982. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. G. H. Gross, “Innervation of the complexus (“hatching”) muscle of the chick,” Journal of Comparative Neurology, vol. 232, no. 2, pp. 180–189, 1985. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. T. Watanabe and Y. Ohmori, “Location of motoneurons supplying upper neck muscles in the chicken studied by means of horseradish peroxidase,” Journal of Comparative Neurology, vol. 270, no. 2, pp. 271–278, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. J. J. Willemse, “The innervation of the muscles of the trapezius-complex in giraffe, okapi, camel and llama,” Arch Neerlandaises Zool, vol. 2, pp. 532–536, 1958. View at Google Scholar
  74. G. Ouaknine and H. Nathan, “Anastomotic connections between the eleventh nerve and the posterior root of the first cervical nerve in humans,” Journal of Neurosurgery, vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 189–197, 1973. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. S. Rapoport, “Location of sternocleidomastoid and trapezius motoneurons in the cat,” Brain Research, vol. 156, no. 2, pp. 339–344, 1978. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. E. B. Krammer, M. F. Lischka, T. P. Egger, M. Riedl, and H. Gruber, “The motoneuronal organization of the spinal accessory nuclear complex,” Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology, vol. 103, pp. 1–62, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. A. Jenny, J. Smith, and J. Decker, “Motor organization of the spinal accessory nerve in the monkey,” Brain Research, vol. 441, no. 1-2, pp. 352–356, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. P. Clavenzani, P. A. Scapolo, E. Callegari et al., “Motoneuron organisation of the muscles of the spinal accessory complex of the sheep investigated with the fluorescent retrograde tracer technique,” Journal of Anatomy, vol. 184, no. 2, pp. 381–385, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. G. Ruminska-Kowalska, W. Wozniak, and M. Godynicka, “Localization of the motor nucleus of the accessory nerve in the spinal cord in dogs,” Folia Morphologica, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 211–218, 1976. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. T. L. Liinamaa, J. Keane, and F. J. R. Richmond, “Distribution of motoneurons supplying feline neck muscles taking origin from the shoulder girdle,” Journal of Comparative Neurology, vol. 377, no. 2, pp. 298–312, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. R. V. Routal and G. P. Pal, “Location of the spinal nucleus of the accessory nerve in the human spinal cord,” Journal of Anatomy, vol. 196, no. 2, pp. 263–268, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. J. R. Augustine and J. F. White, “The accessory nerve nucleus in the baboon,” Anatomical Record, vol. 214, no. 3, pp. 312–320, 1986. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. M. Ullah and S. S. Salman, “Localisation of the spinal nucleus of the accessory nerve in the rabbit,” Journal of Anatomy, vol. 145, pp. 97–107, 1986. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. A. M. Brichta, R. J. Callister, and E. H. Peterson, “Quantitative analysis of cervical musculature in rats: histochemical composition and motor pool organization. I. Muscles of the spinal accessory complex,” Journal of Comparative Neurology, vol. 255, no. 3, pp. 351–368, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. T. Ueyama, T. Satoda, T. Tashiro, T. Sugimoto, R. Matsushima, and N. Mizuno, “Infrahyoid and accessory motoneurons in the Japanese monkey (Macaca fuscata),” Journal of Comparative Neurology, vol. 291, no. 3, pp. 373–382, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. J. C. DeToledo and R. Dow, “Sternomastoid function during hemispheric suppression by amytal: insights into the inputs to the spinal accessory nerve nucleus,” Movement Disorders, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 809–812, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. J. C. DeToledo and N. J. David, “Innervation of the sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles by the accessory nucleus,” Journal of Neuro-Ophthalmology, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 214–216, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. J. Costa, J. Valls-Solé, F. Valldeoriola, J. Rumià, and E. Tolosa, “Motor responses of muscles supplied by cranial nerves to subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimuli,” Brain, vol. 130, no. 1, pp. 245–255, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. W. Windle and L. C. Delozier, “The absence of painful sensation in the cat during stimulation of the spinal accessory nerve,” The Journal of Comparative Neurology, vol. 54, pp. 97–101, 1932. View at Google Scholar
  90. J. C. Hinsey and K. B. Corbin, “Observations of the peripheral course of the sensory fibers in the first four cervical nerves of the cat,” The Journal of Comparative Neurology, vol. 60, pp. 37–44, 1933. View at Google Scholar
  91. K. Corbin and F. Harrison, “Proprioceptive components of cranial nerves. The spinal accessory nerve,” The Journal of Comparative Neurology, vol. 69, pp. 315–328, 1938. View at Google Scholar
  92. K. Corbin, W. Lhamon, and D. Petit, “Peripheral and central connections of the upper cervical dorsal root ganglia in the rhesus monkey,” The Journal of Comparative Neurology, vol. 69, pp. 405–414, 1936. View at Google Scholar
  93. K Corbin and F. Harrison, “The sensory innervation of the spinal accessory and tongue musculature in the rhesus monkey,” Brain, vol. 62, pp. 191–197, 1939. View at Google Scholar
  94. H. Gloobe, G. Ouaknine, J. Klausner, and H. Nathan, “Variations of the first cervical nerve (C) and the spinal accessory nerve (XI) in the cercopithecus (Cercopithecus etiopicus),” Journal of Medical Primatology, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 174–184, 1974. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  95. W. Windle, “The sensory components of the spinal accessory nerve,” The Journal of Comparative Neurology, vol. 53, pp. 115–127, 1931. View at Google Scholar
  96. A. A. Pearson, R. W. Sauter, and G. R. Herrin, “The accessory nerve and its relation to the upper spinal nerves,” The American Journal of Anatomy, vol. 114, pp. 371–391, 1964. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  97. A. Pearson, “The spinal accessory nerve in human embryos,” The Journal of Comparative Neurology, vol. 68, pp. 243–266, 1937. View at Google Scholar
  98. K. C. Soo, P. J. Hamlyn, J. Pegington, and G. Westbury, “Anatomy of the accessory nerve and its cervical contributions in the neck,” Head and Neck Surgery, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 111–115, 1986. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  99. H. R. Krause, A. Kornhuber, and R. Dempf, “A technique for diagnosing the individual patterns of innervation of the trapezius muscle prior to neck dissection,” Journal of Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 102–106, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  100. A. C. Kierner, I. Zelenka, S. Heller, and M. Burian, “Surgical anatomy of the spinal accessory nerve and the trapezius branches of the cervical plexus,” Archives of Surgery, vol. 135, no. 12, pp. 1428–1431, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  101. A. C. Kierner, I. Zelenka, and M. Burian, “How do the cervical plexus and the spinal accessory nerve contribute to the innervation of the trapezius muscle?” Archives of Otolaryngology. Head and Neck Surgery, vol. 127, no. 10, pp. 1230–1232, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  102. A. C. Kierner, M. Burian, S. Bentzien, and W. Gstoettner, “Intraoperative electromyography for identification of the trapezius muscle innervation: clinical proof of a new anatomical concept,” Laryngoscope, vol. 112, no. 10, pp. 1853–1856, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  103. D. Falla, P. Dall'Alba, A. Rainoldi, R. Merletti, and G. Jull, “Repeatability of surface EMG variables in the sternocleidomastoid and anterior scalene muscles,” European Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 87, no. 6, pp. 542–549, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  104. C. S. Oh, I. H. Chung, and K. S. Lee, “Topographical anatomy on the communicating branch between the spinal accessory nerve and the anterior root of the first cervical nerve,” Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy, vol. 25, no. 3-4, pp. 207–209, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  105. Z. H. Dailiana, H. Mehdian, and A. Gilbert, “Surgical anatomy of spinal accessory nerve: Is trapezius functional deficit inevitable after division of the nerve?” Journal of Hand Surgery, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 137–141, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  106. A. Kappers, “On structural laws in the nervous system: the principles of neurobiotaxis,” Brain, vol. 44, pp. 125–149, 1921. View at Google Scholar
  107. J. D. Coulter, R. M. Bowker, S. P. Wise, E. A. Murray, A. J. Castiglioni, and K. N. Westlund, “Corticol, tectal and medullary descending pathways to the cervical spinal cord,” in Reflex Control of Posture and Movement, R. Granit and O. Pompeiano, Eds., pp. 263–279, Elsevier, New York, USA, 1979. View at Google Scholar
  108. M. Kalia and M. M. Mesulam, “Brain stem projections of sensory and motor components of the vagus complex in the cat. I. The cervical vagus and nodose ganglion,” Journal of Comparative Neurology, vol. 193, no. 2, pp. 435–465, 1980. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  109. M. Kalia and J. M. Sullivan, “Brainstem projections of sensory and motor components of the vagus nerve in the rat,” Journal of Comparative Neurology, vol. 211, no. 3, pp. 248–264, 1982. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus