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Neurology Research International
Volume 2011 (2011), Article ID 564089, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2011/564089
Research Article

Mesenchymal Stem Cell Therapy Modulates the Inflammatory Response in Experimental Traumatic Brain Injury

1Departamento de Bioquímica, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Rua Três de Maio 100, 04044-020 São Paulo, SP, Brazil
2Departamento de Imunologia, Universidade de São Paulo, 05508-000 São Paulo, SP, Brazil

Received 14 January 2011; Revised 20 March 2011; Accepted 31 March 2011

Academic Editor: K. J. Becker

Copyright © 2011 Layla T. Galindo et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Therapy with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has showed to be promising due to its immunomodulatory function. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) triggers immune response and release of inflammatory mediators, mainly cytokines, by glial cells creating a hostile microenvironment for endogenous neural stem cells (NSCs). We investigated the effects of factors secreted by MSCs on NSC in vitro and analyzed cytokines expression in vitro in a TBI model. Our in vitro results show that MSC-secreted factors increase NSC proliferation and induce higher expression of GFAP, indicating a tendency toward differentiation into astrocytes. In vivo experiments showed that MSC injection at an acute model of brain injury diminishes a broad profile of cytokines in the tissue, suggesting that MSC-secreted factors may modulate the inflammation at the injury site, which may be of interest to the development of a favorable microenvironment for endogenous NSC and consequently to repair the injured tissue.