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This article has been retracted at the request of the author as it was submitted without the knowledge or consent of the other involved members of the research group or the author’s graduate supervisor, including members deserving authorship or acknowledgement. Also, the manuscript lacked any acknowledgement of departmental and other support.

Neurology Research International
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 671781, 12 pages
Review Article

Peripheral Cytokines as a Chemical Mediator for Postconcussion Like Sickness Behaviour in Trauma and Perioperative Patients: Literature Review

1Neuro Science, Division of Neurology, Department of Medicine, Mc Master University, Hamilton, ON, Canada
2CCRA, Mc Master University, Hamilton, ON, Canada
3Gomal University, D I Khan, Pakistan
4Windsor University, St Kits, Anguilla

Received 6 November 2013; Revised 26 March 2014; Accepted 27 March 2014; Published 28 April 2014

Academic Editor: Changiz Geula

Copyright © 2014 Yasir Rehman et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Besides brain injury and systemic infection, cognitive and concussion like sickness behaviour is associated with muscular trauma and perioperative patients, which represents a major obstacle to daily activities and rehabilitation. The neuroinflammatory response triggers glial activation and consequently the release of proinflammatory cytokines within the hippocampus. We review clinical studies that have investigated neurocognitive and psychosomatic symptoms related to muscular trauma and in perioperative conditions. These include impaired attention and executive and general cognitive functioning. The purpose of this literature review is to focus on the systemic inflammation and the role of proinflammatory cytokines IL1, IL6,and TNF and other inflammatory mediators which mediates the cognitive impairment and induces sickness behaviour. Moreover, this review will also help to determine if some patients could have long-term cognitive changes associated with musculoskeletal injuries or as a consequence of surgery and thereby will lead to efforts in reducing that risk.