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Neurology Research International
Volume 2017, Article ID 8652463, 7 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/8652463
Research Article

Leptomeningeal Contrast Enhancement Is Associated with Disability Progression and Grey Matter Atrophy in Multiple Sclerosis

1SBIH City Clinical Hospital No. 31, City Center of MS and Autoimmune Diseases, St. Petersburg, Russia
2Neurology Department, FSBEI HE I.P. Pavlov SPbSMU MOH Russia, St. Petersburg, Russia
3Institute of Human Brain of the Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, Russia
4Center for Molecular Medicine, Laboratory of Autoimmune Diagnostics, FSBEI HE I.P. Pavlov SPbSMU MOH Russia, St. Petersburg, Russia
5Department of Clinical Pharmacology and EBM, FSBEI HE I.P. Pavlov SPbSMU MOH Russia, St. Petersburg, Russia
6Department of Pharmacoepidemiology and Biostatistics, FSBEI HE I.P. Pavlov SPbSMU MOH Russia, St. Petersburg, Russia
7Institute of Experimental Medicine, St. Petersburg, Russia

Correspondence should be addressed to Gleb Makshakov; moc.liamg@vokahskam.belg

Received 1 May 2017; Revised 7 August 2017; Accepted 24 August 2017; Published 2 October 2017

Academic Editor: Changiz Geula

Copyright © 2017 Gleb Makshakov et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Leptomeningeal contrast enhancement (LMCE) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a newly recognized possible biomarker in multiple sclerosis (MS), associated with MS progression and cortical atrophy. In this study, we aimed to assess the prevalence of LMCE foci and their impact on neurodegeneration and disability. Materials. 54 patients with MS were included in the study. LMCE were detected with a 3 Tesla scanner on postcontrast fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR) sequence. Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score, number of relapses during 5 years from MS onset, and number of contrast-enhancing lesions on T1 weighted MRI were counted. Results. LMCE was detected in 41% (22/54) of patients. LMCE-positive patients had longer disease duration () and higher EDSS score (), but not a higher relapse rate (). No association of LMCE with higher frequency of contrast-enhancing lesions on T1-weighted images was detected (). Analysis of covariates, adjusted for age, sex, and disease duration, revealed a significant effect of LMCE on the cortex volume (, ), the total grey matter volume (, ), and total ventricular volume (, ). Conclusions. LMCE was shown to be an independent and significant biomarker of grey matter atrophy and disability in MS.