Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Nursing Research and Practice
Volume 2011, Article ID 937038, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2011/937038
Research Article

Perceived Symptoms in People Living with Impaired Glucose Tolerance

1Institute of Health and Care Sciences, The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, P.O. Box 457, 405 30 Gothenburg, Sweden
2School of Life Sciences, University of Skövde, P.O. Box 408, 54128 Skövde, Sweden
3University of Gothenburg, Centre for Person-Centred Care (GPCC), P.O. Box 457, 405 30 Gothenburg, Sweden
4Department of Public Health and Community Medicine/Primary Health Care, The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, P.O. Box 457, 405 30 Gothenburg, Sweden
5Department of Health Studies, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Stavanger, 4036 Stavanger, Norway

Received 30 December 2010; Revised 11 April 2011; Accepted 17 May 2011

Academic Editor: Patsy Yates

Copyright © 2011 Susanne Andersson et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. M. I. Harris, “Undiagnosed NIDDM: clinical and public health issues,” Diabetes Care, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 642–652, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. P. Evans, P. Langley, and D. P. Gray, “Diagnosing type 2 diabetes before patients complain of diabetic symptoms—clinical opportunistic screening in a single general practice,” Family Practice, vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 376–381, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  3. A. F. Amos, D. J. McCarty, and P. Zimmet, “The rising global burden of diabetes and its complications: estimates and projections to the year 2010,” Diabetic Medicine, vol. 14, supplement 5, pp. S1–S85, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. S. Wild, G. Roglic, A. Green, R. Sicree, and H. King, “Global prevalence of diabetes: estimates for the year 2000 and projections for 2030,” Diabetes Care, vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 1047–1053, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. J. E. Shaw, R. A. Sicree, and P. Z. Zimmet, “Global estimates of the prevalence of diabetes for 2010 and 2030,” Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, vol. 87, no. 1, pp. 4–14, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  6. WHO, Guidelines for the Definition, Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus and It's Complications, 1998, http://www.who.int/diabetes/publications/Definition%20and%20diagnosis%20of%20diabetes_new.pdf.
  7. R. J. Tapp, J. E. Shaw, P. Z. Zimmet et al., “Albuminuria is evident in the early stages of diabetes onset: results from the Australian Diabetes, Obesity, and Lifestyle Study (AusDiab),” The American Journal of Kidney Diseases, vol. 44, no. 5, pp. 792–798, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. M. C. Adriaanse and F. J. Snoek, “The psychological impact of screening for type 2 diabetes,” Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 20–25, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  9. T. Yates, M. Davies, and K. Khunti, “Preventing type 2 diabetes: can we make the evidence work?” Postgraduate Medical Journal, vol. 85, no. 1007, pp. 475–480, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  10. L. Eisenberg, “Disease and illness Distinctions between professional and popular ideas of sickness,” Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 9–23, 1977. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. P. Salmon, “Conflict, collusion or collaboration in consultations about medically unexplained symptoms: the need for a curriculum of medical explanation,” Patient Education and Counseling, vol. 67, no. 3, pp. 246–254, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  12. M. Hansson Scherman and O. Löwhagen, “Drug compliance and identity: reasons for non-compliance: experiences of medication from persons with asthma/allergy,” Patient Education and Counseling, vol. 54, no. 1, pp. 3–9, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  13. J. Tuomilehto, J. Lindström, J. G. Eriksson et al., “Prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus by changes in lifestyle among subjects with impaired glucose tolerance,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 344, no. 18, pp. 1343–1350, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. V. Adelswärd and L. Sachs, “The meaning of 6.8: numeracy and normality in health information talks,” Social Science and Medicine, vol. 43, no. 8, pp. 1179–1187, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. J. Troughton, J. Jarvis, C. Skinner, N. Robertson, K. Khunti, and M. Davies, “Waiting for diabetes: perceptions of people with pre-diabetes: a qualitative study,” Patient Education and Counseling, vol. 72, no. 1, pp. 88–93, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  16. R. J. Koopman, A. G. Mainous III, and A. S. Jeffcoat, “Moving from undiagnosed to diagnosed diabetes: the patient's perspective,” Family Medicine, vol. 36, no. 10, pp. 727–732, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  17. M. C. Adriaanse, J. M. Dekker, A. M. Spijkerman et al., “Diabetes-related symptoms and negative mood in participants of a targeted population-screening program for type 2 diabetes: the Hoorn Screening Study,” Quality of Life Research, vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 1501–1509, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. S. Andersson, I. Ekman, U. Lindblad, and F. Friberg, “It's up to me! Experiences of living with pre-diabetes and the increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus,” Primary Care Diabetes, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 187–193, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  19. M. C. Adriaanse, F. Pouwer, J. M. Dekker et al., “Diabetes-related symptom distress in association with glucose metabolism and comorbidity: the Hoorn Study,” Diabetes Care, vol. 31, no. 12, pp. 2268–2270, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  20. K. E. Giel, P. Enck, S. Zipfel et al., “Psychological effects of prevention: do participants of a type 2 diabetes prevention program experience increased mental distress?” Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 83–88, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  21. C. A. Paddison, H. C. Eborall, D. P. French et al., “Predictors of anxiety and depression among people attending diabetes screening: a prospective cohort study embedded in the ADDITION (Cambridge) randomized control trial,” The British Journal of Health Psychology, vol. 16, part 1, pp. 213–226, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  22. L. A. Hiltunen and S. M. Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, “Does hyperglycaemia cause symptoms in elderly people?” Central European Journal of Public Health, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 78–83, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. E. W. Gregg, Q. Gu, D. Williams et al., “Prevalence of lower extremity diseases associated with normal glucose levels, impaired fasting glucose, and diabetes among U.S. adults aged 40 or older,” Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, vol. 77, no. 3, pp. 485–488, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  24. P. Mäntyselkä, J. Miettola, L. Niskanen, and E. Kumpusalo, “Persistent pain at multiple sites—connection to glucose derangement,” Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, vol. 84, no. 2, pp. e30–e32, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  25. K. I. Kjellgren, J. Ahlner, B. Dahlöf, H. Gill, T. Hedner, and R. Säljö, “Perceived symptoms amongst hypertensive patients in routine clinical practice—a population-based study,” Journal of Internal Medicine, vol. 244, no. 4, pp. 325–332, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. C. A. Larsson, B. Gullberg, L. Råstam, and U. Lindblad, “Salivary cortisol differs with age and sex and shows inverse associations with WHR in Swedish women: a cross-sectional study,” BMC Endocrine Disorders, vol. 9, article 16, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  27. U. H. Graneheim and B. Lundman, “Qualitative content analysis in nursing research: concepts, procedures and measures to achieve trustworthiness,” Nurse Education Today, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 105–112, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  28. Y. S. Lincoln and E. G. Guba, Naturalistic Inquiry, Sage, Beverly Hills, Calif, USA, 1985.
  29. K. Johannisson, “Hur skapas en diagnos? Ett historiskt perspektiv. I,” in Diagnosens Makt: Om Kunskap, Pengar och Lidande, G. Hallerstedt, Ed., Daidalos, Göteborg, Sweden, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  30. L. Eisenberg and A. Kleinman, The Relevance of Social Science for Medicine, Reidel, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1981.
  31. M. B. Risør, “Illness explanations among patients with medically unexplained symptoms: different idioms for different contexts,” Health, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 505–521, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  32. I. Ekman, J. G. Cleland, B. Andersson, and K. Swedberg, “Exploring symptoms in chronic heart failure,” The European Journal of Heart Failure, vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 699–703, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  33. L. J. Kirmayer, D. Groleau, K. J. Looper, and M. D. Dao, “Explaining medically unexplained symptoms,” The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 49, no. 10, pp. 663–672, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. A. J. Hartz, R. Noyes, S. E. Bentler, P. C. Damiano, J. C. Willard, and E. T. Momany, “Unexplained symptoms in primary care: perspectives of doctors and patients,” General Hospital Psychiatry, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 144–152, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. C. Nimnuan, M. Hotopf, and S. Wessely, “Medically unexplained symptoms: an epidemiological study in seven specialities,” Journal of Psychosomatic Research, vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 361–367, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. E. G. Mishler, The Discourse of Medicine: Dialectics of Medical Interviews, Ablex Publishing, Norwood, NJ, USA, 1984.
  37. I. Ekman, J. G. Cleland, K. Swedberg, A. Charlesworth, M. Metra, and P. A. Poole-Wilson, “Symptoms in patients with heart failure are prognostic predictors: insights from COMET,” Journal of Cardiac Failure, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 288–292, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. K. S. Groven, M. Raheim, and G. Engelsrud, “‘My quality of life is worse compared to my earlier life’: living with chronic problems after weight loss surgery,” International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, vol. 5, no. 4, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  39. H.-G. Gadamer, The Enigma of Health: The Art of Healing in a Scientific Age, Polity Press, Cambridge, UK, 1996.
  40. C. F. Dowrick, A. Ring, G. M. Humphris, and P. Salmon, “Normalisation of unexplained symptoms by general practitioners: a functional typology,” The British Journal of General Practice, vol. 54, no. 500, pp. 165–170, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. F. Friberg and J. Öhlen, “Searching for knowledge and understanding while living with impending death—a phenomenological case study,” International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 217–226, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  42. F. Friberg, E. P. Andersson, and J. Bengtsson, “Pedagogical encounters between nurses and patients in a medical ward—a field study,” International Journal of Nursing Studies, vol. 44, no. 4, pp. 534–544, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  43. C. Skott, “Symptoms beyond diagnosis—a case study,” The European Journal of Cancer Care, vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 549–556, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  44. P. Ricœur, History and Truth, Northwestern University Press, Evanston, Ill, USA, 2007.
  45. B. C. Martin, J. H. Warram, A. S. Krolewski et al., “Role of glucose and insulin resistance in development of type 2 diabetes mellitus: results of a 25-year follow-up study,” The Lancet, vol. 340, no. 8825, pp. 925–929, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. A. Hansson, F. Friberg, K. Segesten, B. Gedda, and B. Mattsson, “Two sides of the coin—general Practitioners' experience of working in multidisciplinary teams,” Journal of Interprofessional Care, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 5–16, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus