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Nursing Research and Practice
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 370828, 7 pages
Research Article

Understanding Jordanian Psychiatric Nurses’ Smoking Behaviors: A Grounded Theory Study

1School of Nursing, University of Northern British Columbia, 3333 University Way, Prince George, BC, Canada V2N 4Z9
2Rafic Hariri School of Nursing, American University of Beirut, Riad El-Solh, Beirut 1107 2020, Lebanon

Received 7 January 2013; Accepted 17 March 2013

Academic Editor: Maria Helena Palucci Marziale

Copyright © 2013 Khaldoun M. Aldiabat and Michael Clinton. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Purpose. Smoking is prevalent in psychiatric facilities among staff and patients. However, there have been few studies of how contextual factors in specific cultures influence rates of smoking and the health promotion role of psychiatric nurses. This paper reports the findings of a classical grounded theory study conducted to understand how contextual factors in the workplace influences the smoking behaviors of Jordanian psychiatric nurses (JPNs). Method. Semi-structured individual interviews were conducted with a sample of eight male JPNs smokers at a psychiatric facility in Amman, Jordan. Findings. Constant comparative analysis identified becoming a heavy smoker as a psychosocial process characterized by four sub-categories: normalization of smoking; living in ambiguity; experiencing workplace conflict; and, facing up to workplace stressors. Conclusion. Specific contextual workplace factors require targeted smoking cessation interventions if JPNs are to receive the help they need to reduce health risks associated with heavy smoking.