Table 1: Patients’ demographic and clinical characteristics used in the SEM models.

CharacteristicsN %

Gender
 Female11354.6%
 Male9445.4%
Marital status
 Single2612.9%
 Married14169.8%
 Separated/divorced/widowed 3517.3%
Smoking status
 Smoker2010.0%
 Nonsmoker18190.0%
Occupational status
 Professional, managerial68 35.1%
 Technical, clerical, and sales3417.5%
 Service2110.8%
 Other7136.6%
Education
 Less than 12th grade199.5%
 High school graduate2211.0%
 Some college/associate6532.5%
 Bachelor’s degree5527.5%
 Graduate school3919.5%
Income
 $24,999 or less3116.2%
 $25,000–$49,9994322.5%
 $45,000–$69,9994020.9%
 $70,000 and above7740.3%

MeanStandard deviation

Age57.410.9
BMI32.27.3
Glycemic control (HbA1c)8.01.6
Depression10.18.9
Diabetes quality of life 73.614.2
General health 69.620.1
Diet 3.61.4
Exercise and foot care3.21.5
Blood glucose and medication4.71.7