Table 4: Observations made during the daily nursing activities (recorded for one week on each ward studied).

WardOrthopedicMedical SurgicalSpinalNeuro

Average number of patients on each unit1856431721
Number of patients with at least a
first stage pressure ulcer
2 (11%)2 (3.5%)3 (7%)6 (35%)5 (24%)
Parameter observed
 Turning of patients at risk every two hours
 Educating a patient who is at risk or a caregiver
 about the prevention of pressure ulcers
 Conducting continuous assessment of areas
 at risk of developing pressure ulcers
 Controlling moisture on the skin of
 patients who are at risk
 Use of pressure reduction devices
 for patients
 Availability of pressure reduction devices
 Involving other health workers in prevention
 and management of pressure ulcers
 Documenting and reporting about patients
 with or at risk of developing pressure ulcers
 Use of formal assessment tool in
 assessing patients for pressure ulcers
 Cleaning, debriding, and dressing of
 pressure ulcers on daily basis