Table 3: Individual factors (reported four or more times).

CategoryFirst authorSignificance (S = < .05)Direction (magnitude)Methodological qualitySample size

) Sociodemographics (n  =  13  studies)

Age ( studies)Allensworth-Davies [47]NSWeak135
Blackmon [49]NSWeak188
Choi [53]NSHigh moderate2,254
Friedman [56]S+ ( = 0.15)High moderate349
Gittell [58]NSLow moderate252
Grieshaber [60]NSWeak79
Kuo [10]NSLow moderate114
Lerner [65]NSLow moderate556
McGilton [67]NSHigh moderate222
Parsons [33]NSWeak550
Simpson [73]S+ ( = 0.14)High moderate504
Walborn [79]S+ ( = 0.218)Weak185

Ethnicity ( studies)Allensworth-Davies [47]NSWeak135
Blackmon [49]NSWeak188
Choi [53]NSHigh moderate2,254
Kuo [10]S+ ( = 0.32)Low moderate114
McGilton [67]S− ( = −0.28)High moderate222
Parsons [33]NSWeak550
Ramirez [71]S (for 2/3 races)− ( = −0.14 to −0.20)Low moderate337

Gender (n = 6 studies)Blackmon [49]NSWeak188
Gittell [58]NSLow moderate252
Kuo [10]NSLow moderate114
Lerner [65]NSLow moderate556
McGilton [67]NSHigh moderate222
Parsons [33]NSWeak550

() Education  (n = 17 studies)

Level of education/years Education (n = 10 studies)Blackmon [49]NSWeak188
Choi [53]NSHigh moderate2,254
Friedman [56]NSHigh moderate349
Gittell [58]NSLow moderate252
Goldwasser [59]SWeak27
Grieshaber [60]NS (urban)Weak79
Grieshaber [60]S (suburban)− ( = −0.51)Weak79
Kuo [10]NSLow moderate114
Lerner [65]NSLow moderate556
Parsons [33]NSWeak550
Walborn [79]S− ( = −0.274)Weak185

Special training (n = 8 studies)Blackmon [49]NSWeak188
Braun [51]S+Weak105
Ramirez [71]S− ( = −0.13)Low moderate337
Resnick [72]NSLow moderate13
Simpson [73]NSHigh moderate504
Tannazzo [76]NSLow moderate301
Thompson [77]NSWeak40
Webb [80]NSWeak178

() Healthcare provider characteristics (n = 18 studies)

Empowerment
(n = 5 studies)
Cready [54]
(autonomy in decision making and perceived meaningful work with a feeling of competence to do it)
S+Weak434
Gruss [61]
(perceived control and access to power within the organization)
S+ ( = 0.46)Low moderate42
Kostiwa [64]
(transfer of power to nonmanagement employees)
S+ ( = 0.294)Low moderate60
Kuo [10]
(perceived support, access to information and resources, opportunity to learn and grow, good relationships with staff)
S+ ( = 0.366)Low moderate114
Yeatts [55]
(autonomy in decision making and perceived meaningful work with competence to do it)
NSWeakNot reported

Years of experience (n = 5 studies)McGilton [67]NSHigh moderate222
Lerner [65]S+ ( = 0.230)Low moderate114
Ramirez [71]NSLow moderate337
Simpson [73]NSHigh moderate504
Walborn [79]S+ ( = 0.204)Weak185

Current position tenure (n = 3 studies)Gittell [58]NSLow moderate252
Grieshaber [60]NS (urban)Weak79
Grieshaber [60]S (suburban)+ ( = 0.38)Weak79
Liu [66]S− ( = −0.14)High moderate244

Employment status (rotating, part time, full time) (n = 4 studies)Albanese [46]NSWeak255
Burgio [52]S = 6.38Low moderate178
Liu [66]S− ( = −0.15)High moderate244
McGilton [67]NSHigh moderate222

Autonomy (n = 3 studies)Allensworth-Davies [47]
(definition not reported)
S+ ( = 0.23)Weak135
Friedman [56] (opportunity to use their own judgment)NSHigh moderate349
Friedman [56] (opportunity to organize workload)S+ ( = 0.17)High moderate349
Tyler [78]
(degree to which a job provides independence and discretion in scheduling work and determining ways to carry it out)
SLow moderate/strong1146

() Personal life (n = 4 studies)

Stress (n = 4 studies)Albanese [46]S− ( = −0.37)Weak255
McGilton [67]S− ( = −0.19)High moderate222
Parmelee [68]NSHigh moderate188
Purk [70]NSWeak34

: test statistic value not reported; : estimate of the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient; : in multiple regression, a standardized coefficient indicating the relative weight of a predictor variable.