Table 7: Summary of qualitative findings.

FactorFirst authorDetails

Individual factors

Education
Pursuing educationSnow [74] CNAs reported they would have greater job satisfaction with more education/expanded skills
Pursuing nursing careerSnow [74](i) CNAs pursuing a nursing career reported the highest level of job satisfaction, followed by CNAs with no plans for further education
(ii) CNAs pursuing education outside of health care reported the lowest levels of job satisfaction
Other
Feeling needed/usefulBye [82] 93% stated feeling needed/useful was the most satisfying aspect of their work

Organizational factors

Facility: resources
Equipment and suppliesQuinn [85] Mainly positive responses, more resources linking to higher job satisfaction
Facility: other
Workplace flexibilityMoyle [84]Related to job satisfaction
Working on skilled unitsBye [82]Some enjoyed challenge of working on skilled units
FacilityBye [82]Some were happy in their current facility and would not like to go to another facility
Pay satisfactionQuinn [85]Typical responses positive in relation to job satisfaction
Benefits satisfactionQuinn [85]Many variant responses positive/negative re job satisfaction
Facility’s response to needs and concernsQuinn [85] Many variant responses positive/negative re job satisfaction
People in managementQuinn [85]Many variant responses positive/negative re job satisfaction
Admin supportKarner [83] Contributing to increased job satisfaction—appropriate and kind administrative support; respectful of aides’ knowledge
Work environment
Working with unskilled or inappropriately trained staffMoyle [84] Related to job dissatisfaction
Working conditionsHoltz [62]68% of aides said that they were extremely or very important to their job satisfaction
Organizational structureKarner [83] Contributing to increased job satisfaction—fair and consistent organizational structures; hands-on training and adequate staff
Recognition/respectHoltz [62] 77% of aides said that it was extremely or very important
Quinn [85] Many variant responses—some say recognition for work is important to job satisfaction and others lead to job dissatisfaction
Quinn [85] Typical response negative for quantity of recognition leading to job satisfaction
Walborn [79]Nurse aides would like more respect, for example, from family members
ResidentsBye [82] Most identified their interaction with residents as the most satisfying aspect of their job
Quinn [85]Many variant responses, typical response positive in relation to job satisfaction
Moyle [84](i) Related to job satisfaction
(ii) Contact with residents promotes enjoyment and job satisfaction
(iii) Job satisfaction comes from resident: interactions and appreciation
Walborn [79]Interacting with residents was a satisfying aspect of the job
Karner [83]Relation with residents was a satisfying aspect of the job
Family member participation in resident care Karner [83] Contributing to increased job satisfaction
Interpersonal relationshipsQuinn [85]Typical response positive in relation to job satisfaction
Holtz [62]100% of aides said that interpersonal relationships were important or extremely important
Bye [82] 53% said these were 2nd and 3rd greatest satisfiers
Support from coworkersMoyle [84] (i) Good teamwork increases job satisfaction
(ii) Job dissatisfaction occurs when staff members are intolerant/upset
Karner [83]Contributing to increased job satisfaction
Quinn [85] Typical response positive in relation to job satisfaction
Tensions within role expectationsMoyle [84]Related to job dissatisfaction
AbsenteeismQuinn [85] Typical responses negative in relation to job satisfaction
Environment (homelike)Karner [83] Contributing to increased job satisfaction
Building designQuinn [85] Many variant responses positive in relation to job satisfaction
Positive feedback Tyler [78]Positive feedback often comes from residents and this type of feedback is more important than feedback received from supervisors
Communication—valued inputQuinn [85] Many variant responses negative in relation to job satisfaction
RespectWalborn [79]Nurse aides would like more respect, for example, from family members
Supervision
SupervisionHoltz [62] 90% of aides said that it was extremely or very important
Walborn [79]Nursing assistants would like to be listened to by charge nurses/managers
Staffing
Number of staff and workloadsQuinn [85] Mainly positive responses with respect to more staff linking to higher job satisfaction
Staffing levelsMoyle [84] (i) Job satisfaction decreases when tasks and time constraints prevent the opportunity to relate to residents and increases likelihood of error
(ii) Dissatisfied with anything that took them away from resident care
Increasing need to be available for overtimeMoyle [84](i) Related to job dissatisfaction
(ii) Overtime created both job satisfaction and dissatisfaction
Other: opportunity for learning and advancement
Learning and growing on the jobBye [82] 17% said this was 2nd and 3rd greatest satisfiers
Expansion of scope of practiceSnow [74] Overall 92% of the certified nursing assistants believed that expansion of their scope of practice would increase their job satisfaction
AdvancementHoltz [62] 48% of aides said that it was extremely or very important
Other: nature of the job
Work itselfHoltz [62]84% of aides said that it was extremely or very important
Quinn [85]Many variant responses in relation to job satisfaction
Moyle [84] (i) Laborious tasks (such as documentation) related to job dissatisfaction
(ii) Job dissatisfaction occurs when tensions are not recognized in the workplace: managerial staff not listening to concerns