Table 1: Illustration of the procedural steps of PVC. The seven steps concerning the technical implementation of vein cannulation are highlighted.

Peripheral venous cannulation: procedural steps [19],
operationalised by Ravik et al. [9]

(1) Prepare all equipment
(2) Clean hands
(3) Ensure patient identity
(4) Select a vein
(5) If required, clip hair around the insertion site
(6) Apply a tourniquet to the chosen limb
(7) Assess the patient’s vein while selecting appropriate site
(8) Release the tourniquet
(9) Ensure that the skin to be anaesthetized is clean and dry
(10) Select device
(11) Clean hands
(12) Clean and establish workspace
(13) Empty equipment on cleaned workspace
(14) Wet sterile swabs with a 0,5% chlorhexidine solution
(15) Prepare a needleless bung with 0,9% sodium chloride
(16) Prepare an extension tubing
(17) Prepare a needleless bung with heparin 100 IE/ml
(18) Make the patient comfortable sitting or lying down
(19) Place a dressing towel under the patient’s arm
(20) Clean hands
(21) Clean the patient’s skin and vein with a 0,5% chlorhexidine solution
(22) Clean the skin and vein once more with a 0,5% chlorhexidine solution
(23) Allow the skin to air-dry for minimum 30 seconds
(24) Put on gloves
(25) Reapply the tourniquet
(26) Apply manual traction a few centimetres below the proposed insertion site
(27) Select site of insertion
(28) Use a three-point cannula grip
(29) Insert the cannula through the skin
(30) Once flashback is seen in the flashback chamber, advance the cannula a few millimetres into the vein before withdrawing the stylet a few millimetres
(31) Slowly advance the cannula forward into the vein in a smooth movement
(32) Release the tourniquet
(33) Apply firm pressure to the vein above the distal cannula tip
(34) Remove the stylet
(35) Discard the stylet into sharps container
(36) Connect an extension tubing
(37) Attach a needleless bung with 0,9% sodium chloride
(38) Flush the cannula with 0,9% sodium chloride
(39) Observe for signs of swelling or leakage
(40) Ask patient about discomfort or pain
(41) Flush the cannula with heparin 100 IE/ml
(42) Cover the insertion site with a transparent dressing
(43) Write date/initials on dressing
(44) Apply bandage
(45) Discard the waste
(46) Remove gloves
(47) Clean hands