Incidence of Surgical Site Infection and Factors Associated among Cesarean Deliveries in Selected Government Hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2019Read the full article
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Women’s Perspectives on Influencers to the Utilisation of Skilled Delivery Care: An Explorative Qualitative Study in North West Ethiopia
Skilled attendance at birth is widely regarded as an effective intervention to reduce maternal and early neonatal morbidity and mortality. However, many women in Ethiopia still deliver without skilled assistance. This study was carried out to identify factors that influenced or motivated women to give birth in a health facility in their previous, current, and future pregnancies. This descriptive explorative qualitative study was conducted in two districts of West Gojjam zone in North West Ethiopia. Fourteen focus group discussions were conducted with pregnant women and women who gave birth within one year. An inductive thematic analysis approach was employed to analyze the qualitative data. In this study, two major themes and a number of subthemes emerged from the focus group discussions with the study participants. The factors that influenced or motivated women to give birth in health facility in their previous, current, and future pregnancies include access to ambulance transport service, prevention of mother to child HIV transmission service, referral service, women friendly service, and emergency obstetric services, good interpersonal care from health workers, and fear and experience of obstetric danger signs and complications. In addition, reception of information and advice on importance of skilled delivery care and obstetric danger signs and complications from health workers, use of antenatal care, previous use of skilled delivery care, ensuring wellbeing of parturient women and newborns, and use of emergency obstetric care were also identified as influencers and motivators for health facility childbirth in previous, current, and future deliveries. Increased understanding of the factors that influenced or motivated women to deliver in facilities could contribute to developing strategies to improve the uptake of facility-based maternity services and corresponding declines in maternal morbidity and mortality.
Cervical Cancer Screening Acceptance among Women in Dabat District, Northwest Ethiopia, 2017: An Institution-Based Cross-Sectional Study
Background. Cervical cancer is a global health problem. It is the second most common cancer in women worldwide, and it is the most frequent form and the leading cause of cancer mortality among Ethiopian women. Cervical cancer screening can reduce at least 50% of cervical cancer deaths. In Ethiopia, practice of cervical cancer screening is below 1%. Hence, this study aimed at assessing cervical cancer screening acceptance and determinant factors among women in Dabat district of Northwest Ethiopia. Methods. A community-based cross-sectional study design was conducted in Dabat district in Northwest Ethiopia, 2016. The multistage sampling method was used to recruit 790 women from the selected rural and urban kebeles. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression analysis method was employed to determine factors significantly associated with the acceptance of cervical cancer screening with a 95% CI at value <0.05. Results. The overall awareness of cervical cancer screening was 12.1% (95% CI: 9.6, 14.5), and 17.1% (95% CI 14.4, 19.8) of them accepted the screening. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, having knowledge about cervical cancer (AOR = 2.6, 95% CI: 1.7, 3.8), parity women who had more children (AOR = 3.1, 95% CI: 1.7, 5.5) and those who perceived the severity of the disease (AOR = 1.9, 95% CI (1.3–3.1)) were statistically significant factors for acceptance of cervical cancer screening. Conclusions. Most of the women had poor awareness and acceptance of cervical cancer screening. The findings also revealed that women of multiparous, knowledge about cervical cancer, and perceived the disease as severe were shown to be significant factors of acceptance for cervical cancer screening. Hence, continuous health education and appropriate counseling to women should be performed.
Fetoplacental Weight Relationship in Normal Pregnancy and Pregnancy Complicated by Pregnancy-Induced Hypertension and Abruption of Placenta among Mothers Who Gave Birth in Southern Ethiopia, 2018
Introduction. Placenta is a complex multifunctional organ that maintains pregnancy and promotes normal fetal development. The fetal outcome is adversely influenced by pathological changes in the placenta because it is a mirror that reflects the intrauterine status of the fetus. Placental abnormalities are considered a leading cause of maternal and prenatal mortality. This study aimed to assess the fetoplacental weight relationship in pregnancy-induced hypertension and abruption placenta and compare with the normal one. Objective. This study designed to assess fetoplacental weight relationships in normal pregnancy and pregnancy complicated by pregnancy-induced hypertension and abruption of placenta among mothers who gave birth in Dilla University Referral Hospital, southern Ethiopia, 2018. Materials and Methods. Institution-based comparative cross-sectional study was used on 50 placentas from mothers with pregnancy-induced hypertension, 50 placentas from mothers with abruption of placenta, and 50 placentas from mothers with normal pregnancy (control) with an age range of 19–34 years. The weight of the placenta and newborn were taken and the fetoplacental ratio was calculated. Results. Placental index as well as the weight of the newborn shows statistically significant () difference in pregnancy-induced hypertension and abruption placenta group compared with the normal group. The mean of the fetoplacental ratio in the normal group was 5.52 ± 0.07, in pregnancy-induced hypertension was 5.15 ± 0.11, whereas the abruption placenta was 4.99 ± 0.82. Conclusion. Both PIH and abruption placenta were associated with remarkable changes in the placenta index such as small placental weight and diameter and results in different kinds of congenital anomalies and low birth weight of the baby. Hence, fetoplacental ratio was altered. The lowest fetoplacental ratio was 4.99 for abruption placenta, and the highest was for a normal group of the placenta which was 5.52. Therefore, an examination of the placenta before and after birth guarantees for feto-maternal health.
Complementary and Alternative Medicine Use for Primary Dysmenorrhea among Senior High School Students in the Western Region of Ghana
Background. Dysmenorrhea is a major gynaecological complaint among females who have reached menarche. It is one of the major causes of absenteeism of females from schools and at the workplaces resulting in loss of productive working hours and work efficiency. Owing to socioeconomic and cultural differences, females from different backgrounds perceive and manage dysmenorrhea differently. Little is known about the use of complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) in the management of this condition by females in senior high schools in Ghana. Thus, this study sought to assess the use of CAM in the management of dysmenorrhea among female students in two senior high schools in Ghana. Methods. A school-based cross-sectional study using a quantitative approach was conducted on a total of 478 female students attending Archbishop Porter Girl’s Secondary School and Mporhor Senior High School. Information on the sociodemographic characteristics, lay representations of dysmenorrhea, pain intensity and severity, quality of life, self-management, and the use of CAM in the management of dysmenorrhea were obtained. The data were analysed using SPSS. Results. 79.3% of the students used some form of CAM to manage dysmenorrhea. Of CAM users, 32% were utilizing mind-body medicine such as endurance and relaxation, 31% used the whole and alternative medicine such as the hot water therapy, 15% used biological-based medicine such as herbal products, and 22% used the manipulative and body-based systems such as exercises. Various CAM methods and products were perceived to be effective in relieving the pain and discomfort associated with dysmenorrhea in about 90% of the participants who used them. Significant associations were reported for pain severity and quality of life (QoL). Conclusions. This study has demonstrated that the female students experiencing dysmenorrhea employ various CAM remedies in its management. Therefore, there is the need for education on the right management of dysmenorrhea to ensure that safe and efficacious CAM products and methods are used by adolescent female students.
Succinate-Based Dietary Supplement for Menopausal Symptoms: A Pooled Analysis of Two Identical Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trials
Background. To evaluate the efficacy of a succinate-based dietary supplement (SBDS; Amberen) in symptomatic menopausal women using a larger sample size derived by pooling data from two identical trials. Methods. Raw data were pooled from two identical randomized, multicenter, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, 90-day clinical trials. Women aged 42–60 years with mild to moderate vasomotor and psychosomatic menopausal symptoms were included (114 in the treatment group and 113 in the placebo group). Symptoms were assessed by the Greene Climacteric Scale and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Changes in body mass index, body weight, waist and hip circumferences, and plasma levels of follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, estradiol, leptin, and apolipoproteins A1 and B were also evaluated. Results. SBDS use resulted in significant improvements in several endpoints including alleviation of 16 of 21 menopausal symptoms (, Greene Scale) and a decrease in anxiety (, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory) when compared to placebo. Significant reductions were observed in weight, body mass index, and waist and hip circumferences in the supplement cohort. Evaluation of physiological parameters showed a significant increase in serum estradiol levels compared to baseline () among users of the SBDS. Levels of follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone decreased slightly in both groups, without significant differences between the groups. Leptin levels decreased with statistical significance in the SBDS cohort compared to placebo (). For those with initial leptin concentrations above the reference range, leptin decreased significantly in the SBDS group compared to the baseline () and to placebo (). Conclusions. The pooled analysis reaffirms the outcomes from the individual trials. A nonhormonal, succinate-based dietary supplement is shown to relieve menopausal symptoms when compared to a placebo regimen in a randomized, double-blinded clinical trial.
A Noninvasive Aid for Office-Based Gynecologists for the Diagnosis of Common External Genital Disorders
Background. Gynecology and dermatology share the diagnosis and the management of some disorders of the female external genital area. In the last decade, clinical diagnosis in dermatology has dramatically improved, thanks to the introduction of dermatoscopy. Technique. Dermatoscopy is a noninvasive, rapid, and simple technique performed with an affordable handheld instrument called dermatoscope, endowed with a light source and a high-quality lens achieving 10 times magnification. Experience. The use of dermatoscopy for the diagnosis of some common external genital disorders, i.e., genital warts (GW), vestibular papillomatosis (VP), molluscum contagiosum (MC), angiokeratoma (AK), and pediculosis pubis (PP), is presented and discussed. Conclusion. The use of dermatoscopy in a gynecologic office may considerably help the specialist to enhance in selected cases the clinical diagnosis and to avoid unnecessary and cumbersome investigations which may be time and money consuming.