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Live Experiences of Adolescent Mothers Attending Mbale Regional Referral Hospital: A Phenomenological Study
Background. Adolescence is a period of transition from childhood to adulthood, and is a critical stage in ones’ development. It is characterized by immense opportunities and risks. By 2016, 16% of the world’s population was of adolescents, with 82% residing in developing countries. About 12 million births were in 15–19 year olds. Sub-Saharan Africa, particularly East Africa, has high adolescent pregnancy rates, as high as 35.8% in eastern Uganda. Maternal mortality ratio (MMR) attributable to 15–19 years olds is significant with 17.1% of Uganda’s MMR 336/100.000 live births being in this age group. Whereas research is awash with contributing factors to such pregnancies, little is known about lived experiences during early motherhood. This study reports the lived experiences of adolescent mothers attending Mbale Hospital. Materials and Methods. A phenomenological study design was used in which adolescent mothers that were attending Young Child Clinic were identified from the register and simple random sampling was used to select participants. We called these mothers by way of phone numbers and asked them to come for focus group discussions that were limited to 9 mothers per group and lasting about 45 minutes–1 hour. Ethical approval was sought and informed written consent obtained from participants. At every focus group discussion, the data which had largely been taken in local languages was transcribed and translated verbatim into English. Results. The research revealed that adolescent mothers go through hard times especially with the changes of pregnancy and fear of unknown during intrapartum and immediate postpartum period and are largely treated negatively by family and other community members in addition to experiencing extreme hardships during parenting. However, these early mothers’ stress is alleviated by the joy of seeing their own babies. Conclusion. Adolescent motherhood presents a high risk group and efforts to support them during antenatal care with special adolescent ANC clinics and continuous counseling together with their household should be emphasized to optimize outcome not only during pregnancy but also thereafter. Involving these mothers in technical courses to equip them with skills that can foster self-employment and providing support to enable them pursue further education should be explored.
Maternal and Perinatal Outcomes of Singleton Term Breech Vaginal Delivery at a Tertiary Care Center in Nepal: A Retrospective Analysis
Background. Breech presentation is associated with increased rates of maternal and perinatal morbidity regardless of mode of delivery. After the results of Term Breech Trial, most of the countries adopted the protocol of cesarean section for term breech delivery because of which breech vaginal delivery is becoming rare. The aim of this study is to evaluate short-term maternal and perinatal outcomes of breech vaginal delivery at a tertiary care hospital in Nepal. Methods. A retrospective review of case records of all women who had vaginal breech delivery from April 13, 2016, to April 12, 2018, was conducted, over a period of two years. Available demographic variables, obstetric characteristics, details of labor, postpartum complications, and perinatal complications were recorded and analyzed. Results. Out of 21,768 cases of deliveries during the study period, the incidence of term breech deliveries was 528 (2.4%) among which the mode of only 84 (17.8%) deliveries was vaginal. Most of the deliveries were unplanned and were conducted because emergency cesarean section could not be performed. Three (3.6%) women had postpartum hemorrhage, and four (4.8%) had entrapment of aftercoming head, two of them requiring Dührssen incisions. Adverse perinatal outcomes were seen in 23.8% of such deliveries with <7 APGAR score at 5 minutes in 20.2%, neonatal admission in 17.7%, and perinatal mortality in 8.3%. The perinatal mortality was significantly associated with birthweight less than 2500 grams as compared to birthweight ≥2500 grams (21.1% versus 4.6%; ). Conclusion. The perinatal outcomes for vaginal breech delivery are grave with our existing health facilities, especially when the deliveries are not well planned.
Maternal Deaths due to Obstetric Haemorrhage in Dodoma Regional Referral Hospital, Tanzania
Background. Despite the availability of comprehensive emergency obstetric care at Dodoma Regional Referral Hospital, deaths due to obstetric haemorrhage are still high. This study was carried out to analyse the circumstances that had caused these deaths. Methods. A retrospective review of all files of women who had died of obstetric haemorrhage from January 2018 to December 2019 was made. Results. A total of 18,296 women gave birth at DRRH; out of these, 61 died of pregnancy-related complications of the deceased while 23 (38%) died of haemorrhage, with many of them 10 (44%) between the age of 30 and 34. Many were grand multiparous women 8 (35%) and almost half of them (11 (48%)) had stayed at DRRH for less than 24 hours. More than half (12 (52%)) had delivered by caesarean section followed by laparotomy due to ruptured uterus (8 (35%)). The leading contributing factors to the deaths of these women were late referral (6 (26%)), delays in managing postpartum haemorrhage due to uterine atony (4 (17%)), inadequate preparations in patients with the possibility of developing PPH (4 (17%)), and delay in performing caesarean section (3 (13%)). Conclusion. Maternal mortality due to obstetric haemorrhage is high at Dodoma Regional Referral Hospital where more than one-third of women died between 2018 and 2019. Almost all of these deaths were avoidable. The leading contributing factors were late referral from other health facilities, inadequate skills in managing PPH due to uterine atony, delays in performing caesarean section at DRRH, and inadequate preparation for managing PPH in patients with abruptio placentae and IUFD which are risk factors for the condition. There is a need of conducting supportive supervision, mentorship, and other modes of teaching programmes on the management of obstetric haemorrhage to health care workers of referring facilities as well as those at DRRH. Monitoring of labour by using partograph and identifying pregnant women at risk should also be emphasized in order to avoid uterine rupture.
A Model of Trust within the Mother-Midwife Relationship: A Grounded Theory Approach
Introduction. The mother-midwife relationship is a good experience during childbirth, but there is a lack of evidence about the trustful relationship between mothers and healthcare providers during labor and birth in Iran. The current study aimed to discover how a trustful mother-midwife relationship is formed during a vaginal delivery. Methods. Twenty-nine women who had a vaginal delivery, midwives, and obstetricians participated in this qualitative research with the grounded theory method. Data were collected using semistructured interviews and observations. Open, axial, and selective coding was used for data analysis. Findings. The main category of “seeking trust in midwife” and three subcategories of “effective interaction,” “attempt to access to healthcare provider”, and “playing an active role in birth” were extracted from the data. Conclusion. According to the findings, mothers tried to gain action/interaction strategies and increase healthcare providers’ trusts during vaginal delivery. It is essential to consider the factors that improve or disrupt this relationship.
Fetal Rhesus D Genotyping and Sex Determination from Maternal Plasma of Rhesus D-Negative Antenatal Population: The Usefulness of Conventional Polymerase Chain Reaction in Resource-limited Settings
Background. This prospective cohort study evaluated the usefulness of conventional PCR in genotyping fetal Rhesus D (RhD) and sex from the maternal plasma of RhD-negative (RhD−) antenatal population in resource-limited settings. Methods. Thirty apparently healthy RhD− pregnant women with RhD positive (RhD+) partners were included. Blood samples were collected from each participant (in the third trimester of pregnancy) for DNA extraction/purification and fetal RhD genotyping. Results. Out of the 30 samples, 26 (86.7%) were found to be RhD+ while 4 (13.3%) were RhD−. The RhD+ comprised 24 (80.0%) RhD+ based on exons 5, 7, and 10 combined. Exons 5 and 7 were detected in two additional samples but not exon 10. Serological phenotyping of neonatal blood confirmed 26 RhD+ and 4 RhD−. There was a perfect agreement between the fetal RhD genotype and neonatal RhD phenotyping after delivery for exons 5 and 7 (concordance = 100%, κ = 100.0%, diagnostic accuracy = 100%, ) while exon 10 presented with an almost perfect agreement (concordance = 93.3%, κ = 76.2%, diagnostic accuracy = 93.3%, ). Regarding the prenatal test for the SRY gene, 9 (30.0%) were predicted to be males and the remaining 21 (60.0%) were females. All the 9 and 21 anticipated males and females, respectively, were confirmed after delivery (concordance = 100%, κ = 100.0%, diagnostic accuracy = 100%). Conclusion. Our study suggests that conventional PCR using the SRY, RhD exons 5 and 7 could be useful for predicting fetal sex and RhD from maternal peripheral blood in resource-limited settings.
Metastatin as a Marker for Hyperandrogenemia in Iraqi Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
Objective. Kisspeptin 1 might reflect increased androgen level in polycystic ovarian syndrome instead of other markers. Study Design. A case control study was performed in Al-Yarmouk Teaching Hospital from 1st of July 2016 to 1st of July 2017; it involved 87 women divided into two groups: 44 women diagnosed as PCOS, 22 women with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 and 22 women with BMI < 25 kg/m2, and another 43 women without PCOS, 22 women with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 and 21 women with BMI < 25 kg/m2. Hormonal, metabolic profiles, and hirsutism scores, as well as serum kisspeptin level, were assessed by using Human Kisspeptin 1(KISS-1) ELISA Kit. The blood samples between days 2 and 5 of menstrual cycle were drawn by an disposable sterile syringe and collected in EDTA containing tubes (as anticoagulant), and the hormonal profile was measured using a biotech ELISA reader. Result. Serum level of kisspeptin was significantly higher in PCOS compared to control (322.4 vs. 235.3 ng/L, respectively). There was no significant difference in age, BMI, and parity between control and PCOS; the frequency of hirsutism, acne, elevated LH, and increased free testosterone (fTT) were significantly higher in PCOS compared to control. Kisspeptin shows a direct significant correlation with hirsutism and fTT (r = 0.648, 0.238, respectively). In ROC analysis, kisspeptin had AUC (95% CI) = 0.874 (0.785–0.935) for predicting PCOS. Conclusion. Kisspeptin levels might be used as a marker for hyperandrogenemia in polycystic ovarian syndrome.