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Risk of Selected Fetal Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes at Advanced Maternal Age: A Retrospective Cohort Study in Debre Markos Referral Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia
Introduction. Pregnancy at an advanced maternal age is defined as pregnancy at 35 years or older. Today, women postpone pregnancy due to different socioeconomic and personal reasons. However, there was limited evidence on fetal adverse outcomes’ association with pregnancy at an advanced maternal age in Ethiopia and particularly in the study area. This study was aimed at assessing the effect of pregnancy at an advanced age on selected neonatal adverse pregnancy outcomes in Debre Markos Referral Hospital, Ethiopia, 2019. Methods. Institution-based retrospective cohort study was conducted on 303 exposed (35 years and older) and 604 nonexposed (20–34 years old) immediate postpartum women who delivered at Debre Markos Referral Hospital after 28 weeks of gestation. All exposed women who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were sampled, and systematic random sampling was employed for those in the nonexposed group. The data were collected from 1st of July to 30th of December, 2019, by face-to-face interview and extraction from maternal chart using a structured questionnaire and data extraction checklist, respectively. Binary logistic regression (bivariate and multivariable) model was fitted, and wealth index was analyzed by principal component analysis. Adjusted relative risk with respect to 95% confidence interval was employed for the strength and directions of association between advanced maternal age and selected adverse pregnancy outcomes, respectively. -value of <0.05 was used to declare statistical significance. Results. The incidence of adverse neonatal outcomes including stillbirth, preterm birth, and low birth weight in the advanced maternal age group was 13.2%, 19.8%, and 16.5%, respectively. The incidence of stillbirth, preterm birth, and low birth weight in the nonexposed group was 3.1%, 8.4%, and 12.4%, respectively. The advanced maternal age group had three times the risk of stillbirth compared with the nonexposed group (ARR = 3.14 95% CI (1.30–7.00)). The advanced maternal age group had 2.66 times the risk of delivering preterm fetus (ARR = 2.66 95% CI (1.81–3.77)) compared with the younger counterparts. Low birth weight was not significantly associated with pregnancy at an advanced maternal age. Conclusion. Fetal adverse outcomes including stillbirth and preterm birth were significantly associated with pregnancy at an advanced maternal age.
Placenta Creta: A Spectrum of Lesions Associated with Shallow Placental Implantation
Background. On placental histology, placenta creta (PC) ranges from clinical placenta percreta through placenta increta and accreta (clinical and occult) to myometrial fibers with intervening decidua. This retrospective study aimed to investigate the clinicopathologic correlations of these lesions. Methods. A total of 169 recent consecutive cases with PC (group 1) were compared with 1661 cases without PC examined during the same period (group 2). The frequencies of 25 independent clinical and 40 placental phenotypes were statistically compared between the groups using chi-square test or analysis of variance where appropriate. Results. Group 1 placentas, as compared with group 2 placentas, were statistically significantly () associated with caesarean sections (11.2% vs. 7.5%), antepartum hemorrhage (17.7% vs 11.6.%), gestational hypertension (11.2% vs 4.3%), preeclampsia (11.8% vs 2.6%), complicated third stage of labor (18.9% vs 6.4%), villous infarction (14.2% vs 8.9%), chronic hypoxic patterns of placental injury, particularly the uterine pattern (14.8%, vs 9.6%), massive perivillous fibrin deposition (9.5% vs 5.3%), chorionic disc chorionic microcysts (21.9% vs 15.9%), clusters of maternal floor multinucleate trophoblasts (27.8% vs 21.2%), excessive trophoblasts of chorionic disc (24.3% vs 17.3%), segmental fetal vascular malperfusion (27.8% vs 19.9%), and fetal vascular ectasia (26.2% vs 15.2%). Conclusion. Because of the association of PC with gestational hypertensive diseases, acute and chronic placental hypoxic lesions, increased extravillous trophoblasts in the chorionic disc, chorionic microcysts, and maternal floor trophoblastic giant cells, PC should be regarded as a lesion of abnormal placental implantation and abnormal trophoblast invasion rather than decidual deficiency only.
Lived Experiences of Adolescent Mothers Attending Mbale Regional Referral Hospital: A Phenomenological Study
Background. Adolescence is a period of transition from childhood to adulthood, and is a critical stage in ones’ development. It is characterized by immense opportunities and risks. By 2016, 16% of the world’s population was of adolescents, with 82% residing in developing countries. About 12 million births were in 15–19 year olds. Sub-Saharan Africa, particularly East Africa, has high adolescent pregnancy rates, as high as 35.8% in eastern Uganda. Maternal mortality ratio (MMR) attributable to 15–19 years olds is significant with 17.1% of Uganda’s MMR 336/100.000 live births being in this age group. Whereas research is awash with contributing factors to such pregnancies, little is known about lived experiences during early motherhood. This study reports the lived experiences of adolescent mothers attending Mbale Hospital. Materials and Methods. A phenomenological study design was used in which adolescent mothers that were attending Young Child Clinic were identified from the register and simple random sampling was used to select participants. We called these mothers by way of phone numbers and asked them to come for focus group discussions that were limited to 9 mothers per group and lasting about 45 minutes–1 hour. Ethical approval was sought and informed written consent obtained from participants. At every focus group discussion, the data which had largely been taken in local languages was transcribed and translated verbatim into English. Results. The research revealed that adolescent mothers go through hard times especially with the changes of pregnancy and fear of unknown during intrapartum and immediate postpartum period and are largely treated negatively by family and other community members in addition to experiencing extreme hardships during parenting. However, these early mothers’ stress is alleviated by the joy of seeing their own babies. Conclusion. Adolescent motherhood presents a high risk group and efforts to support them during antenatal care with special adolescent ANC clinics and continuous counseling together with their household should be emphasized to optimize outcome not only during pregnancy but also thereafter. Involving these mothers in technical courses to equip them with skills that can foster self-employment and providing support to enable them pursue further education should be explored.
Maternal and Perinatal Outcomes of Singleton Term Breech Vaginal Delivery at a Tertiary Care Center in Nepal: A Retrospective Analysis
Background. Breech presentation is associated with increased rates of maternal and perinatal morbidity regardless of mode of delivery. After the results of Term Breech Trial, most of the countries adopted the protocol of cesarean section for term breech delivery because of which breech vaginal delivery is becoming rare. The aim of this study is to evaluate short-term maternal and perinatal outcomes of breech vaginal delivery at a tertiary care hospital in Nepal. Methods. A retrospective review of case records of all women who had vaginal breech delivery from April 13, 2016, to April 12, 2018, was conducted, over a period of two years. Available demographic variables, obstetric characteristics, details of labor, postpartum complications, and perinatal complications were recorded and analyzed. Results. Out of 21,768 cases of deliveries during the study period, the incidence of term breech deliveries was 528 (2.4%) among which the mode of only 84 (17.8%) deliveries was vaginal. Most of the deliveries were unplanned and were conducted because emergency cesarean section could not be performed. Three (3.6%) women had postpartum hemorrhage, and four (4.8%) had entrapment of aftercoming head, two of them requiring Dührssen incisions. Adverse perinatal outcomes were seen in 23.8% of such deliveries with <7 APGAR score at 5 minutes in 20.2%, neonatal admission in 17.7%, and perinatal mortality in 8.3%. The perinatal mortality was significantly associated with birthweight less than 2500 grams as compared to birthweight ≥2500 grams (21.1% versus 4.6%; ). Conclusion. The perinatal outcomes for vaginal breech delivery are grave with our existing health facilities, especially when the deliveries are not well planned.
Maternal Deaths due to Obstetric Haemorrhage in Dodoma Regional Referral Hospital, Tanzania
Background. Despite the availability of comprehensive emergency obstetric care at Dodoma Regional Referral Hospital, deaths due to obstetric haemorrhage are still high. This study was carried out to analyse the circumstances that had caused these deaths. Methods. A retrospective review of all files of women who had died of obstetric haemorrhage from January 2018 to December 2019 was made. Results. A total of 18,296 women gave birth at DRRH; out of these, 61 died of pregnancy-related complications of the deceased while 23 (38%) died of haemorrhage, with many of them 10 (44%) between the age of 30 and 34. Many were grand multiparous women 8 (35%) and almost half of them (11 (48%)) had stayed at DRRH for less than 24 hours. More than half (12 (52%)) had delivered by caesarean section followed by laparotomy due to ruptured uterus (8 (35%)). The leading contributing factors to the deaths of these women were late referral (6 (26%)), delays in managing postpartum haemorrhage due to uterine atony (4 (17%)), inadequate preparations in patients with the possibility of developing PPH (4 (17%)), and delay in performing caesarean section (3 (13%)). Conclusion. Maternal mortality due to obstetric haemorrhage is high at Dodoma Regional Referral Hospital where more than one-third of women died between 2018 and 2019. Almost all of these deaths were avoidable. The leading contributing factors were late referral from other health facilities, inadequate skills in managing PPH due to uterine atony, delays in performing caesarean section at DRRH, and inadequate preparation for managing PPH in patients with abruptio placentae and IUFD which are risk factors for the condition. There is a need of conducting supportive supervision, mentorship, and other modes of teaching programmes on the management of obstetric haemorrhage to health care workers of referring facilities as well as those at DRRH. Monitoring of labour by using partograph and identifying pregnant women at risk should also be emphasized in order to avoid uterine rupture.
A Model of Trust within the Mother-Midwife Relationship: A Grounded Theory Approach
Introduction. The mother-midwife relationship is a good experience during childbirth, but there is a lack of evidence about the trustful relationship between mothers and healthcare providers during labor and birth in Iran. The current study aimed to discover how a trustful mother-midwife relationship is formed during a vaginal delivery. Methods. Twenty-nine women who had a vaginal delivery, midwives, and obstetricians participated in this qualitative research with the grounded theory method. Data were collected using semistructured interviews and observations. Open, axial, and selective coding was used for data analysis. Findings. The main category of “seeking trust in midwife” and three subcategories of “effective interaction,” “attempt to access to healthcare provider”, and “playing an active role in birth” were extracted from the data. Conclusion. According to the findings, mothers tried to gain action/interaction strategies and increase healthcare providers’ trusts during vaginal delivery. It is essential to consider the factors that improve or disrupt this relationship.