Obstetrics and Gynecology International
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Demographics of Physician Associates (PAs) in Obstetrics and Gynecology: Where They Work and How They Compare to Other PAs

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Obstetrics and Gynecology International publishes articles related to obstetrics, maternal-fetal medicine, gynecologic oncology, uro-gynecology, reproductive medicine, infertility, reproductive endocrinology, and sexual medicine.

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Research Article

Characteristics of Serum Lipid Metabolism among Women Complicated with Hypertensive Disorders in Pregnancy: A Retrospective Cohort Study in Mainland China

Background. Altered maternal serum lipid metabolism is associated with hypertensive disorders in pregnancy (HDP). However, its range in pregnancy and characteristic among different subgroups of HDPs are unclear. Methods. Pregnant women with HDP who underwent antenatal care and delivered in Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital of Fudan University during January 2018 to August 2022 were enrolled. The levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC), apolipoprotein (Apo)-A, B, and E, free fatty acids (FFA), and small and dense low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (sdLDL) were measured during 4–16 weeks and 28–42 weeks of pregnancy. Results. A total of 2648 pregnant women were diagnosed with HDP, 1,880 of whom were enrolled for final analysis, including 983 (52.3%) preeclampsia (PE), 676 (36.0%) gestational hypertension (GH), and 221 (11.7%) chronic hypertension (CH). For all HDPs, serum TC, TG, LDLC, HDLC, Apo-A, Apo-B, Apo-E, and sdLDL increased significantly during pregnancy, while FFA decreased significantly. Notably, the levels of TC, LDLC, Apo-B, and sdLDL in PE group were equal to or lower than those in CH group at 4–16 weeks of pregnancy, but increased greatly during pregnancy (). Conclusions. Maternal serum lipid levels changed through pregnancy among women with HDPs. Women complicated with PE seem to have undergone a more significant serum lipid change compared to those with GH or CH.

Research Article

Impact of Introducing PROMPT on Permanent Brachial Plexus Injury and Tears III°/IV° in Shoulder Dystocia: The Hanover Cohort Study

Objective. To test the hypothesis that PROMPT reduces permanent brachial plexus palsy and perineal tears. Design. A prospective/retrospective cohort study. Setting. Hanover Medical School, Germany. Population/Sample. A self-selected population. Methods. The training period is from November 9th, 2017, until December 31st, 2019; control: January 1st, 2004, until November 8th, 2017. Main Outcome Measures. Shoulder dystocia, nonpermanent and permanent brachial plexus injuries (BPIs), perineal tears III°/IV°, manual manoeuvres, and asphyxia. Results. There was a total of 22,640 births, and shoulder dystocia increased from 48/18,031 (0.27%) to 23/4,609 (0.50%) ((), OR: 1.88, 95% CI: (1.14; 3.09)), whereas BPIs decreased from 7/48 (14.6%) to 1/23 (4.3%) (). There was 1/7 (14.2%) of permanent BPI before and 0/1 (0%) case after. Perinatal asphyxia increased from 3/48 (6.3%) to 4/23 (17.4%) (). However, adverse outcomes after one year were zero. McRoberts’ manoeuvre increased from 37/48 (77.1%) to 23/23 (100%) ((), OR: 1.62, 95% CI: (1.33; 1.98)), and internal rotation manoeuvres and manual extraction of the posterior arm from 6/48 (12.5%) to 5/23 (21.7%) (). Episiotomies decreased from 5,267/18,031 (29.2%) to 836/4,609 (18.1%) ((), OR: 0.54, 95% CI: (0.49, 0.58)), whereas perineal tears III°/IV° associated with shoulder dystocia increased from 1/48 (2.1%) to 1/23 (4.8%) (). Vaginal operative deliveries remained constant (6.5% vs. 7%). Conclusions. PROMPT significantly improves the management of shoulder dystocia and decreases permanent brachial plexus injuries but not perineal tears III°/IV°.

Research Article

Diagnostic Test of Transforming Growth Factor-Beta 1 (TGF-β1) in Menstrual Blood with Endometriosis

Background. Endometriosis is a benign disorder that is generally defined as the presence of endometrial glands and stroma outside their normal location. TGF-β1 is found in stromal cells and its expression is increased in epithelial cells of endometriotic cysts. Endometriosis diagnostics take a long time, so new markers are needed to diagnose endometriosis. This study aims to determine the diagnostic value of TGF-β1 in menstrual blood in diagnosing endometriosis. Method. Diagnostic tests to compare eutopic endometrial TGF-β1 levels from menstrual blood of patients with suspected endometriosis were undertaken in the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of Dr. Mohammad Hoesin General Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Sriwijaya University, Palembang, from July 2019 to November 2020. 50 patients who were suspected with endometriosis met the inclusion criteria. Comparison of TGF-β1 levels between endometriosis and nonendometriosis patients was analyzed using the Mann–Whitney test. The cutoff point of the TGF-β1 level towards the histopathological outcome was obtained using the ROC curve. Data analysis was performed by using SPSS version 22.0. Results. In this study, endometriosis patients were 31.6 ± 6.55 years of age with a range of 20 to 46 years. In statistical analysis, there was no difference in BMI () and BMI classification (), the history of contraception (), infertility (), and dysmenorrhoea () between endometriosis and nonendometriosis patients. In the study, there were differences in TGF-β1 between endometriosis and nonendometriosis patients (). By using the ROC curve, the cutoff point for TGF-β1 levels has the best sensitivity and specificity, which is 515 ng/ml. The TGF-β1 level has a sensitivity of 80%, a specificity of 90%, a positive predictive value (PPV) of 0.969, a negative predictive value (NPV) of 0.529, a positive likelihood ratio of 8, a negative likelihood ratio of 0.222, and an accuracy of 0.820 to the endometriosis outcome. Conclusion. It can be concluded that the TGF-β1 level has a very good diagnostic value in establishing endometriosis diagnostics. This trial is registered with ISRCTN72218532.

Research Article

Melatonin Ameliorates Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome (OHSS) through SESN2 Regulated Antiapoptosis

Background. Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) is one of the most severe complications after ovarian stimulation during assisted reproductive technology (ART). However, its pathogenesis still remains unclear. Melatonin is an important antioxidant factor in female reproduction and Sestrin-2 (SESN2) is reported to be involved in cellular response to different stress conditions. Whether or not melatonin and SESN2 are involved in OHSS is still a question to us clinicians. Methods and Results. We collected the granulosa cells of OHSS patients and focused on the role of SESN2 in OHSS. We also studied the role and mechanism of melatonin plays in OHSS patients. We found that the expression of SESN2 was increased in the granulosa cells of OHSS patients (n = 24) than those in controls (n = 15). Incubation with angiotensin II (1 μM, 2 μM) in HUVECs and H2O2 (0.1 mM, 0.2 mM) in KGNs increased the generation of ROS concurrent with the increased expression of SESN2, while melatonin treatment partly restored SESN2 levels. The mechanism study demonstrated that SESN2 was deeply involved in the regulation of AMPK and mTOR, whereas melatonin partially restored angiotensin II or H2O2 induced the activation of AMPK phosphorylation and the inhibition of mTOR, 4EBP1 and S6K1 phosphorylation, all of which could trigger cell apoptosis. Conclusions. These findings indicated that melatonin attenuated ROS-induced apoptosis through SESN2-AMPK-mTOR in OHSS. Thus, melatonin is likely to be a potential and important therapeutic agent for treating and preventing OHSS.

Research Article

Comparing Surgical and Oncological Outcomes between Indocyanine Green (ICG) Sentinel Lymph Node Mapping with Routine Lymphadenectomy in the Surgical Staging of Early-Stage Endometrioid Endometrial Cancer

Introduction and Aim. Sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping has been developed as an alternative to complete lymphadenectomy for the surgical staging of early-stage, uterine-confined endometrial cancer to reduce the morbidity of lymphadenectomy and has been demonstrated as a safe and feasible alternative. We compare the surgical and oncological outcomes between SLN mapping with routine lymphadenectomy in the surgical staging of early-stage endometrial cancer in our centre. Methods. A retrospective single-centre cohort study of patients with early-stage endometrioid endometrial cancer undergoing staging surgery (total hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy with/without pelvic lymph node, and/or para-aortic lymph node dissection (PLND)) with either SLN mapping or routine lymphadenectomy between July 2017 and December 2018. Results. 203 cases with clinical and radiological International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage I endometrioid endometrial cancer were included, out of which 109 cases underwent SLN mapping and 94 cases complete lymphadenectomy. Compared to the PLND group, the SLN group had shorter operative time (129 vs. 162 minutes), less blood loss (100 vs. 300 ml), and decreased length of postoperative hospital stay (3 vs. 4 days) (). The lymph node metastases detection rate was 4.6% and 7.4% for the SLN and PLND groups, respectively (). With a median follow-up of 14 months for the SLN and 15 months for the PLND group, the disease-free (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were comparable for both at 13 months ( and , respectively). Conclusion. SLN mapping has been shown to be an acceptable alternative to routine lymphadenectomy in the surgical staging of early-stage endometrial cancer in our centre, with a comparable lymph node metastases detection rate, DFS and OS, and reduction in operative morbidity. Our results with SLN mapping reproduce comparable outcomes to those reported in the literature.

Research Article

Evidence for Correlation between Novel Autoantibody against Phospholipid Named Neoself Anti-β2-GPI/HLA-DR Antibody and Complement Consumption in Infertile Patients

Impaired implantation is one of the causes of infertility. It occurs under vital inflammatory status due to immune hyperactivation. In the innate immune system, the inflammatory response to pathogenic stimuli is initiated by complement activation. Minimal vasculitis associated with complement consumption in infertile patients may be an underlying mechanism for impaired implantation. Antiphospholipid antibodies regulate the inflammatory response. Recently, a novel autoantibody (neoself antibody) against a complex of β2-GPI and HLA class II molecules (β2-GPI/HLA-DR) has been reported to be an independent autoantibody associated with aPLs. This study investigated the relationship between neoself antibodies and complement consumption in infertile patients with impaired implantation. It was found that decreased C4 levels were strongly related to the increased neoself antibody titers in the serum among those patients whose antibody titers were not as high. On the contrary, serum levels of CH50 and CRP are not correlated with them. These results suggest that neoself antibodies might indicate low-grade inflammation, which causes endometrial vasculitis in impaired implantation of infertile patients.

Obstetrics and Gynecology International
 Journal metrics
See full report
Acceptance rate-
Submission to final decision-
Acceptance to publication-
CiteScore2.900
Journal Citation Indicator0.670
Impact Factor1.9
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