Obstetrics and Gynecology International / 2012 / Article / Tab 1

Research Article

Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy and the Use of Prescription Medication: A Pilot Study

Table 1

Prescription drugs used to increase breastmilk production.

Drug (trade name)Intended useMechanismPotential side effects

Domperidone (Motilium)Antiemetic treatment of reflux diseasePeripheral dopamine antagonist(i) Maternal cardiac arrhythmia
(ii) Possible neurological side effects in infants
(iii) Dry mouth, abdominal cramps, and headache
(iv) Not approved in the United States

Metoclopramide (Maxeran)AntiemeticDopamine antagonistDrowsiness, restlessness, fatigue, anxiety, insomnia, depression, sedation, and pseudo-Parkinsonism
Pediatric: prolonged clearance in infants which can result in high serum levels and a risk for methemoglobinemia. Side effects are more common in children

Sulpiride (Eglonyl)Schizophrenia Antipsychotic AntidepressantSelective dopamine antagonistExtrapyramidal reactions and sedation in adults as well as suspected potential neonatal endocrinological effects
Excreted in breastmilk

Chlorpromazine (Thorazine)AntipsychoticIncreases prolactinSedation, lethargy, and risk of apnea
Pediatric: SIDS

HGH human growth hormone (Somatotropin)Hormone purified polypeptide of recombinant DNAStimulates milk productionHypoglycemia
Pediatric: absorption from breastmilk is unlikely

THR thyrotrophin releasing hormoneTreatment of hypothyroidismAffects prolactin releaseTheoretically may cause hyperthyroid condition in infants

Oxytocin (Pitocin Syntocinon)Endogenous nonapeptide hormoneStimulates milk ejection reflexHypotension, hypertension, water intoxication and excessive uterine contractions, bradycardia, and arrhythmias
Pediatric: neonatal jaundice

Metoclopramide [9], Domperidone [10], Motilium [9, 10], and Sulpiride [11].

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