Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Obstetrics and Gynecology International
Volume 2013, Article ID 165893, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/165893
Research Article

Outpatients’ Perspectives on Problems and Needs Related to Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting: A Qualitative Study from Somaliland

1Department of Public Health Science, Karolinska Institutet, 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden
2Kristinehamnsgatan 4, 123 44 Farsta, Stockholm, Sweden
3Department of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Lund University, 221 00 Lund, Sweden

Received 29 March 2013; Revised 2 June 2013; Accepted 30 July 2013

Academic Editor: R. Elise B. Johansen

Copyright © 2013 Sarah Fried et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. WHO, “Female Genital Mutilation,” 2010, http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs241/en/index.html.
  2. UNICEF, Changing a Harmful Social Convention: Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting, Innocenti Digest, Florence, Italy, 2005.
  3. A. Rahman and N. Toubia, Female Genital Mutilation: A Guide to Laws and Policies Worldwide, Zed Books, 2000.
  4. WHO, “Classification of Female Genital Mutilation,” 2008, http://www.who.int/reproductivehealth/topics/fgm/overview/en/index.html.
  5. WHO, “Health Complications of Female Genital Mutilation,” 2011, http://www.who.int/reproductivehealth/topics/fgm/health_consequences_fgm/en/index.html.
  6. World Bank & UNFPA, Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting in Somalia, World Bank & UN Population Fund, New York, NY, USA, 2004.
  7. A. Warsame and A. Talle, “Female Genital Cutting: the Transition from Infibulation to Smaller Cutting in Somaliland,” Unpublished, 2011.
  8. Ministry of Family Affairs and Social Development, MOFA&SD National Gender Policy of 2009–2012, 2009.
  9. A. A. Gele, B. P. Bø, and J. Sundby, “Have we made progress in Somalia after 30 years of interventions? Attitudes toward female circumcision among people in the Hargeisa district,” BMC Research Notes, vol. 6, article 122, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  10. NAFIS Project Document, Unpublished, 2010.
  11. H.-F. Hsieh and S. E. Shannon, “Three approaches to qualitative content analysis,” Qualitative Health Research, vol. 15, no. 9, pp. 1277–1288, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. U. H. Graneheim and B. Lundman, “Qualitative content analysis in nursing research: concepts, procedures and measures to achieve trustworthiness,” Nurse Education Today, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 105–112, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. L. Almroth, V. Almroth-Berggren, O. M. Hassanein et al., “A community based study on the change of practice of female genital mutilation in a Sudanese village,” International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics, vol. 74, no. 2, pp. 179–185, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. M. Furuta and R. Mori, “Factors affecting women's health-related behaviors and safe motherhood: a qualitative study from a refugee camp in Eastern Sudan,” Health Care for Women International, vol. 29, no. 8-9, pp. 884–905, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. G. Mitike and W. Deressa, “Prevalence and associated factors of female genital mutilation among Somali refugees in eastern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study,” BMC Public Health, vol. 9, article 264, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. A. A. Gele, B. P. Bø, and J. Sundby, “Attitudes toward female circumcision among men and women in two districts in Somalia: is it time to rethink our eradication strategy in Somalia?” Obstetrics and Gynecology International, vol. 2013, Article ID 312734, 12 pages, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  17. K. Missailidis and M. Gebre-Medhin, “Female genital mutilation in eastern Ethiopia,” The Lancet, vol. 356, no. 9224, pp. 137–138, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zuzammenarbeit (GTZ), “Addressing Female Genital Mutilation. Challenges and Perspectives for Health Programmes. Part I: Select Approaches,” 2001, http://gtz.de/en/dokumente/en-fgm-addressing-fgm.pdf.
  19. M. J. Upvall, K. Mohammed, and P. D. Dodge, “Perspectives of Somali Bantu refugee women living with circumcision in the United States: a focus group approach,” International Journal of Nursing Studies, vol. 46, no. 3, pp. 360–368, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. M. A. Dirie and G. Lindmark, “Female circumcision in Somalia and women's motives,” Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, vol. 70, no. 7-8, pp. 581–585, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. E. Gruenbaum, “Sexuality issues in the movement to abolish female genital cutting in Sudan,” Medical Anthropology Quarterly, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 121–138, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. A. Van der Kwaak, “Female circumcision and gender identity: a questionable alliance?” Social Science and Medicine, vol. 35, no. 6, pp. 777–787, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. B. Shell-Duncan, K. Wander, Y. Hernlund, and A. Moreau, “Dynamics of change in the practice of female genital cutting in Senegambia: testing predictions of social convention theory,” Social Science and Medicine, vol. 73, no. 8, pp. 1275–1283, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. R. Sala and D. Manara, “Nurses and requests for female genital mutilation: cultural rights versus human rights,” Nursing Ethics, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 247–258, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. B. Shell-Duncan and Y. Hernlund, Female Circumcision in Africa: Culture, Controversy and Change, Lynne Rienner Publishers, Boulder, Colo, USA, 2000.
  26. UN General Assembly, “Universal Declaration of Human Rights,” 1948, http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/docid/3ae6b3712c.html.