Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Obstetrics and Gynecology International
Volume 2013, Article ID 785148, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/785148
Research Article

Midwives' Experiences in Providing Care and Counselling to Women with Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) Related Problems

1Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden
2Development Studies, Hargeisa, Somaliland, Somalia
3Department of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Lund University, 221 00 Lund, Sweden

Received 9 April 2013; Accepted 18 June 2013

Academic Editor: Johanne Sundby

Copyright © 2013 Elisabeth Isman et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. World Health Organization, “Prevalence of FGM,” 2010, http://www.who.int/reproductivehealth/topics/fgm/fgm.
  2. A. Rahman and N. Toubia, Female Genital Mutilation. A Guide to Laws and Policies Worldwide, Zed Books, London, UK, 2000.
  3. V. Berggren, Female Genital Mutilation (Studies on Primary and Repeated Female Genital Cutting), Karolinska University Press, Stockholm, Sweden, 2005.
  4. B. Chalmers and K. Omer-Hashi, “What Somali women say about giving birth in Canada,” Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 267–282, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. C. Momoh, “Female genital mutilation,” in Female Genital Mutilation: A Clinicians Experience, H. Gordon, Ed., pp. 29–36, TJ International, Cornwall, UK, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  6. B. Berggren and S. Bergström, “Kvinnlig och manlig omskärelse, former av rituell könsstympning,” in Lärobok I sexologi, P. O. Lundberg, Ed., pp. 145–153, Almqvist & Wiksell, Uppsala, Sweden, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  7. M. A. Dirie and G. Lindmark, “Female circumcision in Somalia and women's motives,” Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, vol. 70, no. 7-8, pp. 581–585, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. A. Schlytter, S. Högdin, M. Ghadimi, Å. Backlund, and D. Rexvid, Virginity and Honour. An Investigation of Girls and Boys in Stockholm who Live with Honour Related Control-Summary and Character, Institution for Social Work; Stockholm University, 2009.
  9. A. Talle, “Kulturellt och historiskt sammanhang,” in Kvinnlig Könsstympning, V. Berggren and M. Franck, Eds., Studentlitteratur, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  10. World Health Organization, Eliminating Female Genital Mutilation: An Interagency Statement: UNAIDS, UNDP, UNECA, UNESCO, UNFPA, UNHCR, UNICEF, UNIFEM, Geneva, Switzerland, 2008.
  11. E. Leye, R. A. Powell, G. Nienhuis, P. Claeys, and M. Temmerman, “Health care in Europe for women with genital mutilation,” Health Care for Women International, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 362–378, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. United Nations Population Fund, “A holistic approach to the abandonment of female genital mutilation/cutting,” 2007, http://www.unfpa.org/public/pid/407.
  13. A. Warsame and A. Talle, “Female genital cutting: the transition from infibulation to smaller cutting in Somaliland,” In press.
  14. H. Rushwan, “Female genital mutilation (FGM) management during pregnancy, childbirth and the postpartum period,” International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics, vol. 70, no. 1, pp. 99–104, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. N. Toubia, “Female circumcision as a public health issue,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 331, no. 11, pp. 712–716, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. N. F. Toubia and E. H. Sharief, “Female genital mutilation: have we made progress?” International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics, vol. 82, no. 3, pp. 251–261, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. World Health Organization, “Studygroup on female genital mutilation and obstetric outcome: WHO collaborative prospective study in six African countries,” The Lancet, vol. 367, pp. 1835–1841, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  18. A. A. El Dareer, “Epidemiology of female circumcision in the Sudan,” Tropical Doctor, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 41–45, 1983. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. P. C. Lundberg and A. Gerezgiher, “Experiences from pregnancy and childbirth related to female genital mutilation among Eritrean immigrant women in Sweden,” Midwifery, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 214–225, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. World Health Organisation, “WHO-AIMS report on Mental Health System in Somaliland Region of Somalia,” 2006, http://www.who.int/mental_health/somaliland_who_aims_report.pdf.
  21. World Health Organisation, “Female genital mutilation and other harmful practices,” 2013, http://www.who.int/reproductivehealth/topics/fgm/prevalence/en/.
  22. World Health Organisation, “Improving human resources for sexual and reproductive health and maternity services in Somaliland through performance-based pay,” 2011, http://www.who.int/entity/workforcealliance/forum/2011/hrhawardses12/en/-22k.
  23. W. S. Yirga, N. A. Kassa, M. W. Gebremichael, and A. R. Aro, “Female genital mutilation: prevalence, perceptions and effect on women's health in Kersa district of Ethiopia,” International Journal of Women's Health, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 45–54, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. R. J. Cook, B. M. Dickens, and M. F. Fathalla, “Female genital cutting (mutilation/circumcision): ethical and legal dimensions,” International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics, vol. 79, no. 3, pp. 281–287, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. World Health Organization, “Global strategy to stop health-care providers from performing female genital mutilation,” 2010, http://www.who.int/reproductivehealth/publications/fgm/en.
  26. V. Berggren, G. Abdel Salam, S. Bergström, E. Johansson, and A.-K. Edberg, “An explorative study of Sudanese midwives' motives, perceptions and experiences of re-infibulation after birth,” Midwifery, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 299–311, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. L. B. Berg, Qualitative Research Methods for the Social Sciences, Pearson Education, Boston, Mass, USA, 6th edition, 2007.
  28. U. H. Graneheim and B. Lundman, “Qualitative content analysis in nursing research: concepts, procedures and measures to achieve trustworthiness,” Nurse Education Today, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 105–112, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. M. Sandelowski, “Using qualitative research,” Qualitative Health Research, vol. 14, no. 10, pp. 1366–1386, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. S. Miller, D. L. Billings, and B. Clifford, “Midwives and postabortion care: experiences, opinions, and attitudes among participants at the 25th Triennial Congress of the International Confederation of Midwives,” Journal of Midwifery and Women's Health, vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 247–255, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. E. O. Asekun-Olarinmoye and O. A. Amusan, “The impact of health education on attitudes towards female genital mutilation (FGM) in a rural Nigerian community,” European Journal of Contraception and Reproductive Health Care, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 289–297, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. B. Shell-Duncan, K. Wander, Y. Hernlund, and A. Moreau, “Dynamics of change in the practice of female genital cutting in Senegambia: testing predictions of social convention theory,” Social Science and Medicine, vol. 73, no. 8, pp. 1275–1283, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. I. Askew, “Methodological issues in measuring the impact of interventions against female genital cutting,” Culture, Health and Sexuality, vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 463–477, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus