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Obstetrics and Gynecology International
Volume 2015, Article ID 278591, 8 pages
Research Article

Correlation of Endometrial Glycodelin Expression and Pregnancy Outcome in Cases with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Treated with Clomiphene Citrate Plus Metformin: A Controlled Study

1Gynecology and Obstetrics Department, Ataturk Training and Research Hospital, Basin Sitesi, Yesilyurt, 35360 İzmir, Turkey
2Gynecology and Obstetrics Department, Izmir University Hospital, 35360 İzmir, Turkey
3Gynecology and Obstetrics Department, Isparta Obstetrics and Pediatrics Hospital, 32000 Isparta, Turkey
4Pathology Department, Ataturk Training and Research Hospital, Basin Sitesi, Yesilyurt, 35360 İzmir, Turkey
5Gynecologic Oncology Department, Suleyman Demirel University Hospital, 32000 Isparta, Turkey
6Gynecology and Obstetrics Department, Aydın Obstetrics and Pediatrics Hospital, 09100 Aydın, Turkey

Received 11 November 2014; Revised 2 February 2015; Accepted 16 February 2015

Academic Editor: Curt W. Burger

Copyright © 2015 Selda Uysal et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Objective. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between clomiphene citrate (CC) plus metformin treatment and endometrial glycodelin expression and to then correlate this relationship with pregnancy outcomes. Material and Methods. A total of 30 patients diagnosed with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) according to the Rotterdam criteria constituted our study group. All had been admitted to the gynecology outpatient clinic between June 1, 2011, and January 1, 2012, for infertility treatment. Our control group consisted of 20 patients admitted for routine Pap smear control. They had no history of infertility and were not using contraceptives and they were actively attempting pregnancy. Midluteal progesterone measurement and pipelle endometrial biopsies were performed with both groups. For PCOS patients, metformin treatment was initiated right after the biopsy and CC was added in the second menstrual cycle. Pipelle endometrial biopsies were repeated. Histological dating and immunohistochemistry for glycodelin were performed by a single pathologist who was blinded to the patients’ clinical data. Result(s). The posttreatment ovulation rate in the study group was 93.3%. No pregnancies were achieved in either group when glycodelin expression was not present, even in the presence of ovulation. When glycodelin expression was high in PCOS group, the pregnancy rate was 60% and all pregnancies ended in live births. In weak expression group, however, three out of four pregnancies ended as early pregnancy losses. Conclusion(s). Endometrial glycodelin expression is an important predictor of pregnancy outcomes in both PCOS and fertile groups.