Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Obstetrics and Gynecology International
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 902426, 5 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/902426
Clinical Study

Failure Rate of Single Dose Methotrexate in Managment of Ectopic Pregnancy

1Obstetrics and Gynecology Department, King Fahad Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
2King Khalid University Hospital, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
3Obstetrics and Gynecology Department, King Abdulaziz Medical City, King Saud Bin Abdualziz University for Health Science (KSAU-HS), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
4Obstetrics and Gynecology Department, King Abdulaziz Medical City, King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Science (KSAU-HS), P.O. Box 9515, Jeddah 21423, Saudi Arabia

Received 13 January 2015; Revised 11 February 2015; Accepted 23 February 2015

Academic Editor: Robert Coleman

Copyright © 2015 Feras Sendy et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. J. J. Walker, “Ectopic pregnancy,” Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 89–99, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  2. D. Della-Giustina and M. Denny, “Ectopic pregnancy,” Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 565–584, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. R. Varma and J. Gupta, “Tubal ectopic pregnancy,” Clinical Evidence, vol. 2009, p. 1406, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  4. C. J. Berg, J. Chang, W. M. Callaghan, and S. J. Whitehead, “Pregnancy-related mortality in the United States, 1991–1997,” Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 101, no. 2, pp. 289–296, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. A. K. Majhi, N. Roy, K. S. Karmakar, and P. K. Banerjee, “Ectopic pregnancy—an analysis of 180 cases,” Journal of the Indian Medical Association, vol. 105, no. 6, pp. 308–314, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. J. L. V. Shaw, S. K. Dey, H. O. D. Critchley, and A. W. Horne, “Current knowledge of the aetiology of human tubal ectopic pregnancy,” Human Reproduction Update, vol. 16, no. 4, Article ID dmp057, pp. 432–444, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. G. O. Udigwe, O. S. Umeonihu, and I. I. Mbachu, “Ectopic pregnancy: a 5 year review of cases at nnamdi azikiwe university teaching hospital (NAUTH) Nnewi,” Nigerian Medical Journal, vol. 51, no. 4, pp. 160–163, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  8. T. E. Goldner, H. W. Lawson, Z. Xia et al., “Surveillance for ectopic pregnancy—United States, 1970–1989,” MMWR CDC Surveillance Summaries, vol. 42, pp. 73–85, 1993. View at Google Scholar
  9. J. A. Wong and J. F. Clark, “Correlation of symptoms with age and location of gestation in tubal pregnancy,” Journal of the National Medical Association, vol. 60, no. 3, pp. 221–223, 1968. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. A. Kellogg, “Intratubalmethotrextate versus laproscopicsalpingotomy,” World Journal of Laparoscopic Surgery, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 18–21, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  11. V. Sivalingam, W. Duncan, E. Kirk, L. Shephard, and A. Horne, “Diagnosis and management of ectopic pregnancy,” Journal of Family Planning and Reproductive Health Care, vol. 37, pp. 231–240, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  12. J. I. Tay, J. Moore, and J. J. Walker, “Ectopic pregnancy,” British Medical Journal, vol. 320, no. 7239, pp. 916–919, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. B. C. Kaplan, R. G. Dart, M. Moskos et al., “Ectopic pregnancy: prospective study with improved diagnostic accuracy,” Annals of Emergency Medicine, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 10–17, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. K. Barnhart, M. T. Mennuti, I. Benjamin, S. Jacobson, D. Goodman, and C. Coutifaris, “Prompt diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy in an emergency department setting,” Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 84, no. 6, pp. 1010–1015, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. C. R. Gracia and K. T. Barnhart, “Diagnosing ectopic pregnancy: decision analysis comparing six strategies,” Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 97, no. 3, pp. 464–470, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. A.-M. Lozeau and B. Potter, “Diagnosis and management of ectopic pregnancy,” American Family Physician, vol. 72, no. 9, pp. 1707–1714, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  17. I. A. Rodi, M. V. Sauer, M. J. Gorrill et al., “The medical treatment of unruptured ectopic pregnancy with methotrexate and citrovorum rescue: preliminary experience,” Fertility and Sterility, vol. 46, no. 5, pp. 811–813, 1986. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. T. G. Stovall, F. W. Ling, and J. E. Buster, “Outpatient chemotherapy of unruptured ectopic pregnancy,” Fertility and Sterility, vol. 51, no. 3, pp. 435–438, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. M. D. Pisarska, S. A. Carson, and J. E. Buster, “Ectopic pregnancy,” The Lancet, vol. 351, no. 9109, pp. 1115–1120, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. S. K. van den Eeden, J. Shan, C. Bruce, and M. Glasser, “Ectopic pregnancy rate and treatment utilization in a large managed care organization,” Obstetrics & Gynecology, vol. 105, no. 5, part 1, pp. 1052–1057, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. P. J. Hajenius, S. Engelsbel, B. W. J. Mol et al., “Randomised trial of systemic methotrexate versus laparoscopic salpingostomy in tubal pregnancy,” The Lancet, vol. 350, no. 9080, pp. 774–779, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. S. J. Ory, A. L. Villanueva, P. K. Sand, and R. K. Tamura, “Conservative treatment of ectopic pregnancy with methotrexate,” The American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 154, no. 6, pp. 1299–1306, 1986. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. T. G. Stovall and F. W. Ling, “Single-dose methotrexate: an expanded clinical trial,” The American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 168, no. 6, pp. 1759–1765, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. P. J. Hajenius, F. Mol, B. W. Mol, P. M. Bossuyt, W. M. Ankum, and F. van der Veen, “Interventions for tubal ectopic pregnancy,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, no. 1, Article ID CD000324, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. B. W. J. Mol, P. J. Hajenius, S. Engelsbel et al., “Treatment of tubal pregnancy in the Netherlands: an economic comparison of systemic methotrexate administration and laparoscopic salpingostomy,” The American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 181, no. 4, pp. 945–951, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. M. C. Sowter, C. M. Farquhar, K. J. Petrie, and G. Gudex, “A randomised trial comparing single dose systemic methotrexate and laparoscopic surgery for the treatment of unruptured tubal pregnancy,” British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, vol. 108, no. 2, pp. 192–203, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. K. T. Barnhart, G. Gosman, R. Ashby, and M. Sammel, “The medical management of ectopic pregnancy: a meta-analysis comparing ‘single dose’ and ‘multidose’ regimens,” Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 101, no. 4, pp. 778–784, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. C. M. Farquhar, “Ectopic pregnancy,” The Lancet, vol. 366, no. 9485, pp. 583–591, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. R. J. Morlock, J. E. Lafata, and D. Eisenstein, “Cost-effectiveness of single-dose methotrexate compared with laparoscopic treatment of ectopic pregnancy,” Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 95, no. 3, pp. 407–412, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. T. Tanaka, H. Hayashi, T. Kutsuzawa, S. Fujimoto, and K. Ichinoe, “Treatment of interstitial ectopic pregnancy with methotrexate: report of a successful case,” Fertility and Sterility, vol. 37, no. 6, pp. 851–852, 1982. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. G. H. Lipscomb, V. M. Givens, N. L. Meyer, D. Bran, and S. Zinberg, “Comparison of multidose and single-dose methotrexate protocols for the treatment of ectopic pregnancy,” The American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 192, no. 6, pp. 1844–1847, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. M. B. Potter, L. A. Lepine, and D. J. Jamieson, “Predictors of success with methotrexate treatment of tubal ectopic pregnancy at Grady Memorial Hospital,” The American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 188, no. 5, pp. 1192–1194, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. D. T. Westaby, O. Wu, W. C. Duncan, H. O. D. Critchley, S. Tong, and A. W. Horne, “Has increased clinical experience with methotrexate reduced the direct costs of medical management of ectopic pregnancy compared to surgery?” BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, vol. 12, article 98, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. M. Skubisz, P. Dutton, W. C. Duncan, A. W. Horne, and S. Tong, “Using a decline in serum hCG between days 0–4 to predict ectopic pregnancy treatment success after single-dose methotrexate: a retrospective cohort study,” BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, vol. 13, article 30, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. A. Ayaz, S. Emam, and M. U. Farooq, “Clinical course of ectopic pregnancy: a single-center experience,” Journal of Human Reproductive Sciences, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 70–73, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. A. Panti, N. E. Ikechukwu, O. lukman, E. Yakubu, S. Egondu, and B. A. Tanko, “Ectopic pregnancy at Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital Sokoto: a ten year review,” Annals of Nigerian Medicine, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 87–91, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  37. U. Mahboob and S. B. Mazhar, “Management of ectopic pregnancy: a two-year study,” Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 34–37, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. L. C. Edozien, “Non-surgical management of ectopic pregnancy: appropriate risk management must be in place,” Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics, vol. 283, no. 5, pp. 925–927, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus