Immunosuppressant-Induced Oxidative Stress and Iron: A Paradigm Shift from Systemic to Intrahepatic AbnormalitiesRead the full article
Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity publishes research involving cellular and molecular mechanisms of oxidative stress in the nervous system and related organ systems in relation to aging, immune function, vascular biology, metabolism etc.
Chief Editor, Dr Vasquez-Vivar has experience in free radical and redox biology research including the discovery of the role of tetrahydrobiopterin in the regulation of superoxide generation by endothelial and neuronal nitric oxide synthase.
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The Effects of Natural Iridoids and Anthocyanins on Selected Parameters of Liver and Cardiovascular System Functions
The old adage says, “you are what you eat.” And although it is a banality repeated by many with a grain of salt, it also has quite a bit of truth in it, as the products we eat have a considerable impact on our health. Unfortunately, humanity is eating worse from one year to another, both in terms of product quality and eating habits. At the same time, it is brought up frequently that plant products should form the basis of our diet. This issue was also reflected in the new version of the food pyramid. Iridoids and anthocyanins are groups of plant compounds with proven beneficial effects on health. Both groups affect the cardiovascular system and the liver functions. Although many mechanisms of action and the therapeutic effects of these compounds have already been learned, intensive animal and clinical research is still underway to explore their new curative mechanisms and effects or to broaden our knowledge of those previously described. In this article, we review the effects of natural iridoids and anthocyanins on selected parameters of liver and cardiovascular system functions.
Stanniocalcin-1 Alleviates Contrast-Induced Acute Kidney Injury by Regulating Mitochondrial Quality Control via the Nrf2 Pathway
Contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) is the third common cause of acute kidney injury (AKI), which is associated with poor short- and long-term outcomes. Currently, effective therapy strategy for CI-AKI remains lacking. Stanniocalcin-1 (STC1) is a conserved glycoprotein with antiapoptosis and anti-inflammatory functions, but the role of STC1 in controlling CI-AKI is unknown. Here, we demonstrated a protective role of STC1 in contrast-induced injury in cultured renal tubular epithelial cells and CI-AKI rat models. Recombinant human STC1 (rhSTC1) regulated mitochondrial quality control, thus suppressing contrast-induced mitochondrial damage, oxidative stress, inflammatory response, and apoptotic injury. Mechanistically, activation of the Nrf2 signaling pathway contributes critically to the renoprotective effect of STC1. Together, this study demonstrates a novel role of STC1 in preventing CI-AKI and reveals Nrf2 as a molecular target of STC1. Therefore, this study provides a promising preventive target for the treatment of CI-AKI.
The Role of DNMT and HDACs in the Fetal Programming of Hypertension by Glucocorticoids
The causes of hypertension are complex and involve both genetic and environmental factors. Environment changes during fetal development have been linked to adult diseases including hypertension. Studies show that timed in utero exposure to the synthetic glucocorticoid (GC) dexamethasone (Dex) results in the development of hypertension in adult rats. Evidence suggests that in utero stress can alter patterns of gene expression, possibly a result of alterations in the topology of the genome by epigenetic markers such as DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs). The objective of this study was to determine the effects of epigenetic regulators in the fetal programming and the development of adult hypertension. Specifically, this research examined the effects of the HDAC inhibitor valproic acid (VPA) and the DNMT inhibitor 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine (5aza2DC) on blood pressure (BP) and gene expression in prenatal Dex-programmed rats. Data suggest that both VPA and 5aza2DC attenuated the Dex-mediated development of hypertension and restored BP to control levels. Epigenetic DNMT inhibition (DNMTi) or HDAC inhibition (HDACi) also successfully attenuated elevations in the majority of altered catecholamine (CA) enzyme expression, phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT) protein, and elevated epinephrine (Epi) levels in males. Although females responded to HDACi similar to males, DNMTi drove increased glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and PNMT expression and elevations in circulating Epi in females despite showing normotensive BP.
Molecular Mechanism of Functional Ingredients in Barley to Combat Human Chronic Diseases
Barley plays an important role in health and civilization of human migration from Africa to Asia, later to Eurasia. We demonstrated the systematic mechanism of functional ingredients in barley to combat chronic diseases, based on PubMed, CNKI, and ISI Web of Science databases from 2004 to 2020. Barley and its extracts are rich in 30 ingredients to combat more than 20 chronic diseases, which include the 14 similar and 9 different chronic diseases between grains and grass, due to the major molecular mechanism of six functional ingredients of barley grass (GABA, flavonoids, SOD, K-Ca, vitamins, and tryptophan) and grains (β-glucans, polyphenols, arabinoxylan, phytosterols, tocols, and resistant starch). The antioxidant activity of barley grass and grain has the same and different functional components. These results support findings that barley grain and its grass are the best functional food, promoting ancient Babylonian and Egyptian civilizations, and further show the depending functional ingredients for diet from Pliocene hominids in Africa and Neanderthals in Europe to modern humans in the world. This review paper not only reveals the formation and action mechanism of barley diet overcoming human chronic diseases, but also provides scientific basis for the development of health products and drugs for the prevention and treatment of human chronic diseases.
Kaji-Ichigoside F1 and Rosamultin Protect Vascular Endothelial Cells against Hypoxia-Induced Apoptosis via the PI3K/AKT or ERK1/2 Signaling Pathway
As a pair of differential isomers, Kaji-ichigoside F1 and Rosamultin are both pentacyclic triterpenoids isolated from the subterranean root of Potentilla anserina L., a plant used in folk medicine in western China as antihypoxia and anti-inflammatory treatments. We demonstrated that Kaji-ichigoside F1 and Rosamultin effectively prevented hypoxia-induced apoptosis in vascular endothelial cells. We established a hypoxia model, using EA.hy926 cells, to further explore the mechanisms. Hypoxia promoted the phosphorylation of AKT, ERK1/2, and NF-κB. In hypoxic cells treated with Kaji-ichigoside F1, p-ERK1/2 and p-NF-κB levels were increased, while the level of p-AKT was decreased. Treatment with Rosamultin promoted phosphorylation of ERK1/2, NF-κB, and AKT in hypoxic cells. Following the addition of LY294002, the levels of p-AKT, p-ERK1/2, and p-NF-κB decreased significantly. Addition of PD98059 resulted in reduced levels of p-ERK1/2 and p-NF-κB, while p-AKT levels were increased. Pharmacodynamic analysis demonstrated that both LY294002 and PD98059 significantly inhibited the positive effects of Kaji-ichigoside F1 on cell viability during hypoxia, consistent with the results of hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) staining, DAPI staining, and flow cytometry. The antihypoxia effects of Rosamultin were remarkably inhibited by LY294002 but promoted by PD98059. In Kaji-ichigoside F1- and Rosamultin-treated cells, Bcl2 expression was significantly upregulated, while expression of Bax and cytochrome C and levels of cleaved caspase-9 and cleaved caspase-3 were reduced. Corresponding to pharmacodynamic analysis, LY294002 inhibited the regulatory effects of Kaji-ichigoside F1 and Rosamultin on the above molecules, while PD98059 inhibited the regulatory effects of Kaji-ichigoside F1 but enhanced the regulatory effects of Rosamultin. In conclusion, Kaji-ichigoside F1 protected vascular endothelial cells against hypoxia-induced apoptosis by activating the ERK1/2 signaling pathway, which positively regulated the NF-κB signaling pathway and negatively regulated the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. Rosamultin protected vascular endothelial cells against hypoxia-induced apoptosis by activating the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway and positively regulating ERK1/2 and NF-κB signaling pathways.
Pharmacological Effects and Toxicogenetic Impacts of Omeprazole: Genomic Instability and Cancer
Omeprazole (OME) is commonly used to treat gastrointestinal disorders. However, long-term use of OME can increase the risk of gastric cancer. We aimed to characterize the pharmacological effects of OME and to correlate its adverse effects and toxicogenetic risks to the genomic instability mechanisms and cancer-based on database reports. Thus, a search (till Aug 2019) was made in the PubMed, Scopus, and ScienceDirect with relevant keywords. Based on the study objective, we included 80 clinical reports, forty-six in vitro, and 76 in vivo studies. While controversial, the findings suggest that long-term use of OME (5 to 40 mg/kg) can induce genomic instability. On the other hand, OME-mediated protective effects are well reported and related to proton pump blockade and anti-inflammatory activity through an increase in gastric flow, anti-inflammatory markers (COX-2 and interleukins) and antiapoptotic markers (caspases and BCL-2), glycoprotein expression, and neutrophil infiltration reduction. The reported adverse and toxic effects, especially in clinical studies, were atrophic gastritis, cobalamin deficiencies, homeostasis disorders, polyp development, hepatotoxicity, cytotoxicity, and genotoxicity. This study highlights that OME may induce genomic instability and increase the risk of certain types of cancer. Therefore, adequate precautions should be taken, especially in its long-term therapeutic strategies and self-medication practices.