Role of Prefrontal Cortex on Recognition Memory Deficits in Rats following 6-OHDA-Induced Locus Coeruleus LesionRead the full article
Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity publishes research involving cellular and molecular mechanisms of oxidative stress in the nervous system and related organ systems in relation to aging, immune function, vascular biology, metabolism etc.
Chief Editor, Dr Vasquez-Vivar has experience in free radical and redox biology research including the discovery of the role of tetrahydrobiopterin in the regulation of superoxide generation by endothelial and neuronal nitric oxide synthase.
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Pristimerin Exacerbates Cellular Injury in Conditionally Reprogrammed Patient-Derived Lung Adenocarcinoma Cells by Aggravating Mitochondrial Impairment and Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress through EphB4/CDC42/N-WASP Signaling
Lung cancer is the most common and lethal malignant disease for which the development of efficacious chemotherapeutic agents remains an urgent need. Pristimerin (PRIS), a natural bioactive component isolated from various plant species in the Celastraceae and Hippocrateaceae families, has been reported to exhibit outstanding antitumor effects in several types of cells. However, the underlying mechanisms involved remain poorly understood. Here, we reported the novel finding that PRIS significantly suppressed lung cancer growth in conditionally reprogrammed patient-derived lung adenocarcinoma cells (CRLCs). We demonstrated that PRIS inhibited the cell viabilities, migrative and invaded abilities, and capillary structure formation of CRLCs. Furthermore, our results clarified that PRIS induced mitochondrial dysfunction through reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, activation of caspase-9, caspase-3, and caspase-4, and expression of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-associated proteins. Inhibition of ER stress by 4-PBA (4-phenylbutyric acid, a specific ER stress inhibitor) or CHOP siRNA transfection ameliorated PRIS-induced loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and intrinsic apoptosis. The present study also provides mechanistic evidence that PRIS suppressed the EphB4/CDC42/N-WASP signaling pathway, which is required for mitochondrial-mediated intrinsic apoptosis, activation of ER stress, and stimulation of caspase-4 induced by PRIS, and consequently resulting in suppressed cell viability, migration, and angiogenesis in CRLCs. Taken together, by providing a mechanistic insight into the modulation of ER stress-induced cell death in CRLCs by PRIS, we suggest that PRIS has a strong potential of being a new antitumor therapeutic agent with applications in the fields of human lung adenocarcinoma.
PI3K/Akt and ERK1/2 Signalling Are Involved in Quercetin-Mediated Neuroprotection against Copper-Induced Injury
Copper, a transition metal with essential cellular functions, exerts neurotoxic effects when present in excess by promoting production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The aim of the present study was to investigate potential benefits of flavonoid quercetin against copper-induced toxicity. Results obtained with MTT assay indicate that the effects of quercetin are determined by the severity of the toxic insult. In moderately injured P19 neuronal cells, concomitant treatment with 150 μM quercetin improved viability by preventing ROS formation, caspase-3 activation, and chromatin condensation. Western blot analysis revealed that quercetin reduced copper-induced increase in p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) expression and promoted upregulation of nucleoside diphosphate kinase NME1. Levels of p53 and Bax proteins were not affected by both copper and quercetin. UO126 and wortmannin, inhibitors of ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt signalling pathways, respectively, prevented neuroprotective effects of quercetin. In severely injured neurons, 30 μM quercetin exerted strong prooxidative action and exacerbated cytotoxic effects of copper, whereas 150 μM quercetin failed to affect neuronal survival. These results demonstrate the dual nature of quercetin action in copper-related neurodegeneration. Hence, they are relevant in the context of considering quercetin as a possible therapeutic for neuroprotection and imply that detailed pharmacological and toxicological studies must be carried out for natural compounds capable of acting both as antioxidants and prooxidants.
Ceftriaxone Calcium Crystals Induce Acute Kidney Injury by NLRP3-Mediated Inflammation and Oxidative Stress Injury
Objective. To investigate the role of inflammatory reactions and oxidative stress injury in the mechanisms of ceftriaxone calcium crystal-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) both in vivo and in vitro. Methods. Male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups of ten each according to different concentrations of ceftriaxone and calcium. Based on the levels of serum creatinine (Scr) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN), the AKI group was chosen for the subsequent experiments. Kidney histological examination and immunohistochemistry were performed. The expression of NLRP3 and IL-1β protein and the concentrations of oxidative stress markers such as ROS, MDA, and H2O2 in kidney tissues were estimated. In parallel, HK-2 human renal proximal tubule cells were exposed to ceftriaxone calcium crystals. The mRNA expression levels of NLRP3 and IL-1β and the concentrations of oxidative stress markers were evaluated. Finally, cell viability and rat survival were also assessed. Results. The results showed that significantly increased Scr and BUN levels, consistent with morphological changes and kidney stones, were found in the rats that received the highest concentration of ceftriaxone (1000 mg/kg) combined with calcium (800 mg/kg). The activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome axis and the marked elevation of MDA, H2O2, and ROS levels were observed both in vivo and in vitro. High expression of Nrf2, HO-1, and NQO1 was also documented. In addition, cell apoptosis and rat mortality were promoted by ceftriaxone calcium crystals. Conclusions. Notably, we found that ceftriaxone-induced urolithiasis was associated with a high risk of AKI and NLRP3-mediated inflammasome and oxidative stress injury were of major importance in the pathogenesis.
Metformin Protects ARPE-19 Cells from Glyoxal-Induced Oxidative Stress
The protective effects and mechanisms of metformin against oxidative stress were evaluated both in vivo and in vitro. ARPE-19 cells comprised the normal group, the glyoxal-treated group (0.5 mM glyoxal), and the glyoxal+metformin group (0.5 mM glyoxal and 0.1 mM metformin). In the in vitro model, differences in cell viability, ROS production, NO products, cellular apoptosis, and the expressions of phospho-AMPKα, total-AMPKα, Sirt1, Nrf2, TXNIP, ZO-1, and Occludin were assessed. In the glyoxal-treated group, cell viability and NO production were decreased, while ROS production and cell apoptosis were increased (), compared with the control group. These changes were prevented by metformin treatment. Protein expressions of phospho-AMPKα, Sirt1, TXNIP, ZO-1, and Occludin, but not Nrf2, were decreased significantly in the glyoxal-treated group compared to normal controls. Metformin treatment significantly increased the above protein expressions and slightly increased TXNIP expression. Immunofluorescence showed that metformin prevented the glyoxal-induced, disorganized tight junctions in ARPE-19 cells. To confirm metformin’s protection, Sprague-Dawley rats were injected intravenously with sodium iodate (SI) to induce oxidative stress in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Metformin was then delivered intraperitoneally or intravitreally. One day and three days after SI and metformin treatments, the RPE-Bruch’s membrane-choriocapillaris complex was isolated and immune-stained with ZO-1 antibodies. The morphology of the RPE showed enlarged cellular bodies and disorganized ZO-1 staining in SI-treated rats. Metformin treatment prevented these changes. The results indicated that metformin maintained the barrier functions of RPE cells both in vivo and in vitro. Metformin exerted its protection against oxidative stress possibly via activating AMPK/Sirt1 and increasing TXNIP. Metformin has been proposed as a candidate drug for age-related macular degeneration (AMD) by both preclinical and clinical studies. The cellular and animal models used in this study might be useful for the interpretation of the molecular mechanisms involved in the drug activity.
Renal Progenitor Cells Have Higher Genetic Stability and Lower Oxidative Stress than Mesenchymal Stem Cells during In Vitro Expansion
In vitro senescence of multipotent cells has been commonly associated with DNA damage induced by oxidative stress. These changes may vary according to the sources of production and the studied lineages, which raises questions about the effect of growing time on genetic stability. This study is aimed at evaluating the evolution of genetic stability, viability, and oxidative stress of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCBMsu) and renal progenitor cells of the renal cortex (RPCsu) of swine (Sus scrofa domesticus) in culture passages. P2, P5, and P9 were used for MSCBMsu and P1, P2, and P3 for RPCsu obtained by thawing. The experimental groups were submitted to MTT, apoptosis and necrosis assays, comet test, and reactive substance measurements of thiobarbituric acid (TBARS), nitrite, reduced glutathione (GSH), and catalase. The MTT test curve showed a mean viability of and , respectively, for MSCBMsu and RPCsu. The percentages of MSCBMsu and RPCsu were presented, respectively, for apoptosis, an irregular and descending behavior, and necrosis, ascending and irregular. The DNA damage index showed higher intensity among the MSCBMsu in the P5 and P9 passages (). In the TBARS evaluation, there was variation among the lines of RPCsu and MSCBMsu, presenting the last most significant variations (). In the nitrite values, we identified only among the lines, in the passages P1 and P2, with the highest averages displayed by the MSCBMsu lineage (). The measurement of antioxidant system activity showed high standards, identifying differences only for GSH values, in the RPCsu lineage, in P3 (). This study suggests that the maintenance of cell culture in the long term induces lower regulation of oxidative stress, and RPCsu presents higher genetic stability and lower oxidative stress than MSCBMsu during in vitro expansion.
Hydroxy-α-sanshool Possesses Protective Potentials on H2O2-Stimulated PC12 Cells by Suppression of Oxidative Stress-Induced Apoptosis through Regulation of PI3K/Akt Signal Pathway
Zanthoxylum bungeanum pericarp is a commonly used herbal medicine in China with effects of anti-inflammatory and analgesic, improving learning and memory ability, while hydroxy-α-sanshool (HAS) is the most important active ingredient of Z. bungeanum pericarps. The purpose of this study was to investigate the neuroprotective effect of HAS and its related possible mechanisms using a H2O2-stimulated PC12 cell model. CCK-8 assay results showed that HAS had a significant protective effect on H2O2-stimulated PC12 cells without obvious cytotoxicity on normal PC12 cells. Flow cytometry and fluorescence microscope (DAPI staining and DCFH-DA staining) indicated that HAS could reduce the H2O2-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells via reduction of intracellular ROS and increase of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). Subsequently, results of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) determination suggested that HAS could increase the enzyme activities of SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px whereas it could decrease the MDA contents in H2O2-stimulated PC12 cells. Furthermore, the western blotting assays showed that HAS could upregulate the expressions of p-PI3k, Akt, p-Akt, and Bcl-2, while it could downregulate the expressions of cleaved caspase-3 and Bax in H2O2-stimulated PC12 cells. Collectively, it could be concluded according to our results that HAS possesses protective potentials on H2O2-stimulated PC12 cells through suppression of oxidative stress-induced apoptosis via regulation of PI3K/Akt signal pathway.