BACE1 Inhibition Utilizing Organic Compounds Holds Promise as a Potential Treatment for Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s DiseasesRead the full article
Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity publishes research involving cellular and molecular mechanisms of oxidative stress in the nervous system and related organ systems in relation to aging, immune function, vascular biology, and metabolism.
Chief Editor Dr Vasquez-Vivar has experience in free radical and redox biology research including the discovery of the role of tetrahydrobiopterin in the regulation of superoxide generation by endothelial and neuronal nitric oxide synthase.
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Synergistic Cytotoxicity of Extracts of Chaga Mushroom and Microalgae against Mammalian Cancer Cells In Vitro
Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) contains bioactive metabolites and has been used to treat various ailments, including cancer. Similarly, marine microalgae are considered a sustainable food supplement with anticancer and antioxidant properties. This study investigated the cytotoxicity of different extracts prepared from I. obliquus and microalgae using cultured human and canine cancer cell lines (MCF-7, HepG2, HOS, D-17, and DH-82). MTS cell viability assay was used to study the cytotoxicity of I. obliquus and microalgae extracts, and a synergy matrix effect was used to study the combined effect of the extracts. Isobologram analysis and the highest single agent synergy model were applied to study and validate the synergy between the extracts from I. obliquus and microalgae. Ethanol-based extraction and supercritical water extract significantly inhibited the growth of various mammalian cancer cells compared to aqueous extracts. Osteosarcoma cells were more susceptible to the supercritical extracts of I. obliquus and chlorophyll-free and sugar-free ethanol extracts of microalgae. A combination of ethanol-based I. obliquus extract and chlorophyll-free microalgae extract resulted in a synergistic interaction with various tested cancer cells. This study provides experimental evidence supporting the potential therapeutic application of I. obliquus and microalgae extracts with a synergistic effect to inhibit the growth of various mammalian cancer cells. Additional in vivo studies are required to fully explore possible therapeutic applications of these unique mixtures to be used in treating cancers.
The Molecular Blueprint for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): A New Paradigm for Diagnosis and Therapeutics
The global prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has increased over the last decade and has emerged as the third leading cause of death worldwide. It is characterized by emphysema with prolonged airflow limitation. COPD patients are more susceptible to COVID-19 and increase the disease severity about four times. The most used drugs to treat it show numerous side effects, including immune suppression and infection. This review discusses a narrative opinion and critical review of COPD. We present different aspects of the disease, from cellular and inflammatory responses to cigarette smoking in COPD and signaling pathways. In addition, we highlighted various risk factors for developing COPD apart from smoking, like occupational exposure, pollutants, genetic factors, gender, etc. After the recent elucidation of the underlying inflammatory signaling pathways in COPD, new molecular targeted drug candidates for COPD are signal-transmitting substances. We further summarize recent developments in biomarker discovery for COPD and its implications for disease diagnosis. In addition, we discuss novel drug targets for COPD that could be explored for drug development and subsequent clinical management of cardiovascular disease and COVID-19, commonly associated with COPD. Our extensive analysis of COPD cause, etiology, diagnosis, and therapeutic will provide a better understanding of the disease and the development of effective therapeutic options. In-depth knowledge of the underlying mechanism will offer deeper insights into identifying novel molecular targets for developing potent therapeutics and biomarkers of disease diagnosis.
P-Glycoprotein Exacerbates Brain Injury Following Experimental Cerebral Ischemia by Promoting Proinflammatory Microglia Activation
Microglia are activated following cerebral ischemic insult. P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is an efflux transporter on microvascular endothelial cells and upregulated after cerebral ischemia. This study evaluated the effects and possible mechanisms of P-gp on microglial polarization/activation in mice after ischemic stroke. P-gp-specific siRNA and adeno-associated virus (p-AAV) were used to silence and overexpress P-gp, respectively. Middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion (MCAO/R) and oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R) were performed in mice and cerebral microvascular endothelial cells (bEnd.3) in vitro, respectively. OGD/R-injured bEnd.3 cells were cocultured with mouse microglial cells (BV2) in Transwell. Influences on acute ischemic stroke outcome, the expression of inflammatory cytokines, and chemokines and chemokines receptors, microglial polarization, glucocorticoid receptor (GR) nuclear translocation, and GR-mediated mRNA decay (GMD) activation were evaluated via reverse transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction, western blot, or immunofluorescence. Silencing P-gp markedly alleviated experimental ischemia injury as indicated by reduced cerebral infarct size, improved neurological deficits, and reduced the expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-12 expression. Silencing P-gp also mitigated proinflammatory microglial polarization and the expression of C-C motif chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) and its receptor CCR2 expression, whereas promoted anti-inflammatory microglia polarization. Additionally, P-gp silencing promoted GR nuclear translocation and the expression of GMD relative proteins in endothelial cells. Conversely, overexpressing P-gp via p-AAV transfection offset all these effects. Furthermore, silencing endothelial GR counteracted all effects mediated by silencing or overexpressing P-gp. Elevated P-gp expression aggravated inflammatory response and brain damage after ischemic stroke by augmenting proinflammatory microglial polarization in association with increased endothelial CCL2 release due to GMD inhibition by P-gp.
Relationship among Dietary Intake of Vitamin E, Lipid Peroxidation Markers, and C-Reactive Protein in Flu-Like Patients Diagnosed with COVID-19
Objective. This research aimed to assess the intake of vitamin E and its relationship with lipid peroxidation markers and C-reactive protein levels in patients with flu symptoms and COVID-19 diagnosis. Methods. A cross-sectional study with 121 patients of both sexes assisted at two basic health units in the city of Teresina, Piauí, with COVID-19 diagnosis confirmed through real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, was performed between the 3rd and 7th days of flu symptoms. The global nutritional status and the measurement of waist circumference were assessed according to the World Health Organization recommendations. The dietary energy intake, macronutrients, and vitamin E consumption were assessed through the 24 hr food recall method. The malondialdehyde plasmatic concentration (MDA) was measured through the method of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) was assessed through the oxidation speed of the o-dianisidine substrate in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were measured by a high-sensitivity immunoturbidimetry method. Results. The most common symptoms reported by the participants were sore throat, fever, and cough. Regarding the global nutritional status evaluation, the majority of the sample had overweight. The dietary intake of vitamin E was 100% inadequate and presented a mild correlation (r = 0.197) with MDA, a redox status marker. No correlation was observed among MPO, CRP, and the dietary intake of vitamin E. Conclusion. The dietary intake of vitamin E was related to MDA as the marker of redox status.
MicroRNAs Regulate Function in Atherosclerosis and Clinical Implications
Background. Atherosclerosis is considered the most common cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Athermanous plaque formation is pathognomonic of atherosclerosis. The main feature of atherosclerosis is the formation of plaque, which is inseparable from endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells, and macrophages. MicroRNAs, a small highly conserved noncoding ribonucleic acid (RNA) molecule, have multiple biological functions, such as regulating gene transcription, silencing target gene expression, and affecting protein translation. MicroRNAs also have various pharmacological activities, such as regulating cell proliferation, apoptosis, and metabolic processes. It is noteworthy that many studies in recent years have also proved that microRNAs play a role in atherosclerosis. Methods. To summarize the functions of microRNAs in atherosclerosis, we reviewed all relevant articles published in the PubMed database before June 2022, with keywords “atherosclerosis,” “microRNA,” “endothelial cells,” “vascular smooth muscle cells,” “macrophages,” and “cholesterol homeostasis,” briefly summarized a series of research progress on the function of microRNAs in endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells, and macrophages and atherosclerosis. Results and Conclusion. In general, the expression levels of some microRNAs changed significantly in different stages of atherosclerosis pathogenesis; therefore, MicroRNAs may become new diagnostic biomarkers for atherosclerosis. In addition, microRNAs are also involved in the regulation of core processes such as endothelial dysfunction, plaque formation and stabilization, and cholesterol metabolism, which also suggests the great potential of microRNAs as a therapeutic target.
Photobiomodulation at Defined Wavelengths Regulates Mitochondrial Membrane Potential and Redox Balance in Skin Fibroblasts
Starting from the discovery of phototherapy in the beginning of the last century, photobiomodulation (PBM) has been defined in late 1960s and, since then, widely described in different in vitro models. Robust evidence indicates that the effect of light exposure on the oxidative state of the cells and on mitochondrial dynamics, suggesting a great therapeutic potential. The translational scale-up of PBM, however, has often given contrasting and confusing results, mainly due to light exposure protocols which fail to adequately control or define factors such as emitting device features, emitted light characteristics, exposure time, cell target, and readouts. In this in vitro study, we describe the effects of a strictly controlled light-emitting diode (LED)-based PBM protocol on human fibroblasts, one of the main cells involved in skin care, regeneration, and repair. We used six emitter probes at different wavelengths (440, 525, 645, 660, 780, and 900 nm) with the same irradiance value of 0.1 mW/cm2, evenly distributed over the entire surface of the cell culture well. The PBM was analyzed by three main readouts: (i) mitochondrial potential (MitoTracker Orange staining), (ii) reactive oxygen species (ROS) production (CellROX staining); and (iii) cell death (nuclear morphology). The assay was also implemented by cell-based high-content screening technology, further increasing the reliability of the data. Different exposure protocols were also tested (one, two, or three subsequent 20 s pulsed exposures at 24 hr intervals), and the 645 nm wavelength and single exposure chosen as the most efficient protocol based on the mitochondrial potential readout, further confirmed by mitochondrial fusion quantification. This protocol was then tested for its potential to prevent H2O2-induced oxidative stress, including modulation of the light wave frequency. Finally, we demonstrated that the controlled PBM induced by the LED light exposure generates a preconditioning stimulation of the mitochondrial potential, which protects the cell from oxidative stress damage.