Oxidative Stress in The Hippocampus During Experimental Seizures Can Be Ameliorated With The Antioxidant Ascorbic Acid
Ascorbic acid has many nonenzymatic actions and is a powerful water-soluble antioxidant. It protects low density lipoproteins from oxidation and reduces harmful oxidants in the central nervous system. Pilocarpine-induced seizures have been suggested to be mediated by increases in oxidative stress. Current studies have suggested that antioxidant compounds may afford some level of neuroprotection against the neurotoxicity of seizures. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of ascorbic acid (AA) in rats, against the observed oxidative stress during seizures induced by pilocarpine. Wistar rats were treated with 0.9% saline (i.p., control group), ascorbic acid (500 mg/kg, i.p., AA group), pilocarpine (400 mg/kg, i.p., pilocarpine group), and the association of ascorbic acid (500 mg/kg, i.p.) plus pilocarpine (400 mg/kg, i.p.), 30 min before of administration of ascorbic acid (AA plus pilocarpine group). After the treatments all groups were observed for 6 h. The enzyme activities as well as the lipid peroxidation and nitrite concentrations were measured using spectrophotometric methods and the results compared to values obtained from saline and pilocarpine-treated animals. Protective effects of ascorbic acid were also evaluated on the same parameters. In pilocarpine group there was a significant increase in lipid peroxidation and nitrite level. However, no alteration was observed in superoxide dismutase and catalase activities. Antioxidant treatment significantly reduced the lipid peroxidation level and nitrite content as well as increased the superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in hippocampus of adult rats after seizures induced by pilocarpine. Our findings strongly support the hypothesis that oxidative stress in hippocampus occurs during seizures induced by pilocarpine, proving that brain damage induced by the oxidative process plays a crucial role in seizures pathogenic consequences, and also imply that a strong protective effect could be achieved using ascorbic acid.