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Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Volume 3 (2010), Issue 3, Pages 199-205

Role of Gender, Smoking Profile, Hypertension, and Diabetes on Saphenous Vein and Internal Mammary Artery Endothelial Relaxation in Patients with Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

1Department of Medicine, Institute of Clinical Science, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, UK
2Division of Stroke Medicine, Clinical Sciences Building, University of Nottingham, Nottingham City Hospital Campus, Nottingham, UK

Received 22 November 2009; Revised 16 February 2010; Accepted 10 March 2010

Copyright © 2010 Hindawi Publishing Corporation. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The aim of this study was to investigate if there was a link between the relaxant responses in saphenous vein (SV) and internal mammary artery (IMA) segments obtained from patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting and the patients' cardiovascular risk factors. Endothelium-(in)dependent relaxations were assessed by isometric tension studies. Endothelium-dependent relaxant responses were greater in IMA than SV and gender, smoking profile and history of hypertension but not diabetes appeared to have an influence on these responses. Endothelium-dependent relaxant responses in both IMA and SV were greater in males than females and relaxant responses in IMA segments were attenuated in smokers, whereas the opposite effect was noted in SV segments. Endothelium-dependent relaxant responses in SV were lower in patients with hypertension. Endothelium-independent relaxant responses were greater in IMA than SV. Endothelium-independent responses were greater in male patients' SV segments, but gender played no role in IMA segments. Diabetes had no effect on endothelium-independent responses in IMA, but SV segments from diabetic patients had greater responses. Neither conduit's endothelium-independent response was affected by hypertensive status. The relationship between risk factor status and endothelial responses is multifactorial, with gender, hypertension, diabetes and smoking status all contributing.