Figure 1: Protandim treatment induces phase II antioxidant enzyme protein expression in HCAEC. (a) HCAECs were treated with 1–50 μg/mL of Protandim for 12 hrs prior to measuring HO-1 protein expression. The HO-1 signal was verified using a purified HO-1 protein extract positive control. (b) Following determination of the appropriate concentration of Protandim, HCAECs were treated with 20 μg/mL Protandim for 12 hrs then protein expression of HO-1, GR, SOD-1, and NQO1 was determined by Western blot. All bands were normalized to β-actin as a loading control and expressed as a percent of the control (vehicle) condition ( treatments). * compared to control (no Protandim), ** compared to control (no Protandim). Data are presented as mean + SE. Ptd: Protandim, Ctr: No Protandim, + Ctr: HO-1 positive control.