Table 1: Sixty-three disease models and human diseases for which beneficial effects of hydrogen have been documented.

DiseasesSpeciesAdministration

Brain
 Cerebral infarction [6, 30, 55, 56]Rodent, humanGas, saline
 Cerebral superoxide production [75]RodentWater
 Restraint-induced dementia [22]RodentWater
 Alzheimer’s disease [23, 24]RodentSaline
 Senile dementia in senescence-accelerated mice [25]RodentWater
 Parkinson’s disease [18, 19]RodentWater
 Hemorrhagic infarction [34]RodentGas
 Brain trauma [76]RodentGas
 Carbon monoxide intoxication [52]RodentSaline
 Transient global cerebral ischemia [66]RodentGas
 Deep hypothermic circulatory arrest-induced brain damage [57]RodentSaline
 Surgically induced brain injury [77]RodentGas
Spinal Cord
 Spinal cord injury [78]RodentSaline
 Spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion [51]RabbitGas
Eye
 Glaucoma [79]RodentInstillation
 Corneal alkali-burn [61]RodentInstillation
Ear
 Hearing loss [8082]Tissue, rodentMedium, water
Lung
 Oxygen-induced lung injury [53, 60, 83, 84]RodentSaline
 Lung transplantation [85]RodentGas
 Paraquat-induced lung injury [86]RodentSaline
 Radiation-induced lung injury [8789]RodentWater
 Burn-induced lung injury [90]RodentSaline
 Intestinal ischemia/reperfusion-induced lung injury [44]RodentSaline
Heart
 Acute myocardial infarction [36, 65, 91]RodentGas, saline
 Cardiac transplantation [46]RodentGas
 Sleep apnea-induced cardiac hypoxia [48]RodentGas
Liver
 Schistosomiasis-associated chronic liver inflammation [4]RodentGas
 Liver ischemia/reperfusion [5]RodentGas
 Hepatitis [43]RodentIntestinal gas
 Obstructive jaundice [47]RodentSaline
 Carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatopathy [62]RodentSaline
 Radiation-induced adverse effects for liver tumors [31]HumanWater
Kidney
 Cisplatin-induced nephropathy [9294]RodentGas, water
 Hemodialysis [20, 28]HumanDialysis solution
 Kidney transplantation [95]RodentWater
 Renal ischemia/reperfusion [54]RodentSaline
 Melamine-induced urinary stone [96]RodentWater
 Chronic kidney disease [37]RodentWater
Pancreas
 Acute pancreatitis [97]RodentSaline
Intestine
 Intestinal transplantation [41, 45, 59]RodentGas, medium, saline
 Ulcerative colitis [42]RodentGas
 Intestinal ischemia/reperfusion [63]RodentSaline
Blood vessel
 Atherosclerosis [98]RodentWater
Muscle
 Inflammatory and mitochondrial myopathies [29]HumanWater
Cartilage
 NO-induced cartilage toxicity [38]CellsMedium
Metabolism
 Diabetes mellitus type I [32]RodentWater
 Diabetes mellitus type II [26]HumanWater
 Metabolic syndrome [27, 99]Human, rodentWater
 Diabetes/obesity [33]RodentWater
Perinatal disorders
 Neonatal cerebral hypoxia [1012]Rodent, pigGas, saline
 Preeclampsia [58]RodentSaline
Inflammation/allergy
 Type I allergy [64]RodentWater
 Sepsis [100]RodentGas
 Zymosan-induced inflammation [101]RodentGas
 LPS/IFNγ-induced NO production [67]CellsGas
Cancer
 Growth of tongue carcinoma cells [14]CellsMedium
 Lung cancer cells [15]CellsMedium
 Radiation-induced thymic lymphoma [16]RodentSaline
Others
 UVB-induced skin injury [49]RodentBathing
 Decompression sickness [102]RodentSaline
 Viability of pluripotent stromal cells [103]CellsGas
 Radiation-induced cell damage [104, 105]CellsMedium
 Oxidized low density lipoprotein-induced cell toxicity [50]CellsMedium
 High glucose-induced oxidative stress [35]CellsMedium