Table 1: Oxidative stress parameters in Parkinson’s disease patients.

ObservationMarker for oxidative stressSampled regionOutcome (versus control)References

In vivoMDABlood, CSF[40]
GSH reductaseBlood
Cu/Zn-SODBlood
SuperoxideBlood

In vivoHNEPlasma, CSF[42]

In vivoLipoprotein oxidationPlasma, CSF[43]
Protein sulfhydryl groupsPlasma, CSF
α-TocopherolCSF

In vivoCu/Zn/Mn-SOD activitySkin fibroblasts[44]
GPx activitySkin fibroblasts
Catalase activitySkin fibroblasts

In vivoLipid oxidation productsPlasma[19]
8-OHdGUrine

In vivoMarkers of oxidative stressiPSCs[45]
Sensitivity to oxidative stressiPSCs

In vivoMDABlood[41]
SOD activityBlood
GPxBlood

PostmortemLipid peroxidationSN[38]
Reduced GSHSN
Total ironSN
FerritinSN
GPx activitySN
Catalase activitySN

PostmortemIronSN[39]
MAO-BSN
Cu/Zn-SODSN
Heme oxygenaseSN
GSHSN
Vitamin CSN

PostmortemGPx 4SN[46]

PostmortemProtein oxidationCaudate nucleus[35]
Lipid peroxidationFrontal cortex
Protein nitrationCaudate nucleus, putamen, frontal cortex
Total GSHCaudate nucleus, putamen, frontal cortex
CatalaseCaudate nucleus, putamen, frontal cortex
SODCaudate nucleus, putamen, frontal cortex
GSH reductaseCaudate nucleus, putamen, frontal cortex
GPxCaudate nucleus, putamen

Abbreviations: 4-HNE: 4-hydroxynonenal, 8-OhdG: 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, CSF: cerebrospinal fluid, GPx: GSH peroxidase, GSH: glutathion, iPSCs: induced pluripotent stem cells, MDA: malondialdehyde, SN: substantia nigra, SOD: sodium dismutase, : increased, : decreased, : not different.