Table 2: Oxidative stress parameters in transgenic mouse models of Parkinson’s disease.

ModelAge (mo.)Marker for oxidative stressSampled regionTechniqueOutcome (versus control)References

DJ-1 KO5, 11Protein oxidationEntire brainOxyblot[93]

DJ-1 KO2-3,18–24Protein oxidationEntire brainOxyblot[94]
Mitochondrial ROSEntire brainAmplex red assay
Mitochondrial aconitase activityEntire brainMitochondrial aconitase activity assay at 2-3 mo., at 18–24 mo.

DJ-1 KO24–27DNA/RNA oxidationSNIHC[95]
NitrotyrosineSNIHC
4-HNESNIHC

DJ-1 KO1Mitochondrial ROSSN2PLSM[96]
Mn-SODSNRT-qPCR
GPxSNRT-qPCR
CatalaseSNRT-qPCR

DJ-1 KO4–6Mitochondrial ROSEntire brainPHPA assay[97]

Parkin KO22Protein oxidationStriatum, cortexOxyblot[98]

Parkin KO11Total GSHStriatumMethod of Tietze[99]
GSSHStriatumMethod of Griffith

Parkin KO8Peroxiredoxin 1Ventral midbrain2DGE + MS[100]
Peroxiredoxin 2Ventral midbrain2DGE + MS
Peroxiredoxin 6Ventral midbrain2DGE + MS
Lactoylglutathione lyaseVentral midbrain2DGE + MS
3, 6, 184-HNEBrainIHC at 3 or 6 mo., ↑ at 18 mo.
5–12Total antioxidant capacitySerumSerum antioxidant capacity assay
3, 18–20Protein oxidationEntire brainOxyblot at 3 mo., ↑ at 18–20 mo.

Parkin KO2, 12Mitochondrial aconitaseStriatum, cortex2DGE + MS↑ in cortex at 2 mo.[101]
GSH S-transferase P 2Striatum, cortex2DGE + MS in striatum and cortex at 2 mo.
Carbonyl reductase [NADPH] 1Striatum, cortex2DGE + MS↑ in striatum at 2 mo.
Lactoylglutathione lyaseStriatum, cortex2DGE + MS↑ in striatum at 2 mo.
Thioredoxin reductaseStriatum, cortex2DGE + MS↑ in striatum at 2 mo.
Protein oxidationStriatum, cortexOxyblot

Parkin KO2, 24Total GSHStriatum, midbrain, limbic systemMethod of Tietze↑ at 2 mo., at 24 mo.[102]
GSH reductase activityStriatum, midbrain, limbic systemGSH reductase activity assay (within KO group, ↑ at 24 mo. versus 2 mo.)
GPx activityStriatum, midbrain, limbic systemMethod of Flohe and Gunzler (within KO group, ↑ at 24 mo. versus 2 mo.)
Catalase activityStriatum, midbrain, limbic systemReaction with methanol in presence of H2O2

Parkin KO19–21NitrotyrosineSNELISA[103]
Nitrated α-synucleinSNIHCOnly KO stain positive

PINK1 KO3-4Lipid peroxidationStriatum, cortexTBARS levels[29]
24Protein oxidationStriatumOxyblot
4-HNESNIHC
Mitochondrial ROSStriatum, cortexAmplex red assay
22–24Mn-SODStriatumWB
CuZn-SODStriatumWB
CatalaseStriatumWB
G6-PDHStriatumWB

PINK1 KO2Mitochondrial ROSDCF assay[104]

PINK1 KO4GSH synthetaseStriatum, midbrain, cortex2DGE + MS↑ in cortex and striatum[28]
Peroxiredoxin 1Striatum, midbrain, cortex2DGE + MS↑ in cortex
Protein oxidationStriatum, midbrain, cortexOxyblot

PINK1 KO2-34-HAELeft ventricleMDA/4-HAE kit[105]
8-OHdGLeft ventricle8-OHdG kit
GSH/GSSGLeft ventricleGSH/GSSG kit
SOD activityLeft ventricleSOD activity kit
Aconitase activityLeft ventricleAconitase activity kit

SNCA KON.R.Hydroxyl radicalsStriatum4-HBA trapping[106]

SNCA OExp
A30P
N.R.Oxidized/nitrated α-synBrainIHCOnly OExp stain positive[107]

SNCA OExp
A30P
6–14Protein oxidationEntire brain2DGE + WB↑ (oxidized mitochondrial proteins Car2, Eno1, Ldh2)[108]

SNCA OExp
A53T
12Oxidized α-synSpinal cord, locus coeruleusIHCOExp stain positive[109]
Nitrated α-synPonsIHCOExp stain positive

SNCA OExp
A53T
N.R.Mitochondrial DNA damageBrainstem, neocortex, spinal cordTUNEL technique[110]
Nitrated α-synSpinal cordIHCOExp stain positive

SNCA OExp
A53T A30P
3, 6GPx 3StriatumMicroarray[111]
SOD 2StriatumMicroarray

SNCA OExp
WT
12Oxidized α-synEntire brainWB[112]

Abbreviations: 2DGE: 2D gelelectrophoresis, 2-HBA: salicylate, 4-HNE: 4-hydroxynonenal, 4-HAE: 4-hydroxyalkenal, 8-OhdG: 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, α-syn: α-synuclein, GPx: GSH peroxidase, GSH: glutathion, GSSH: oxidized glutathion, H2O2: hydrogen peroxide, IHC: immunohistochemistry, IF: immunofluorescence, KO: knockout, mo: months, MS: mass spectrometry, OExp: overexpression, PHPA: p-hydroxyphenylacetate, ROS: reactive oxygen species, SN: substantia nigra, SOD: sodium dismutase, WB: Western blot, WT: wildtype, ↑: increased, : decreased, : not different.