Table 3: Gene-environment interactions in transgenic mouse models of Parkinson’s disease.

ModelAge (mo.)Marker for susceptibility to oxidative stressSampled regionTechniqueOutcome (versus control)References

DJ-1 KO2-3Lesion after MPTPSN, striatumTH/DAT IHC, DA HPLC[140]

DJ-1 KO3-4Lesion after MPTPStriatumTH WB, DA HPLC[141]

DJ-1 OExpN.R.Lesion after MPTPSNTH IHC[142]

Parkin KO3Lesion after 6-OHDAStriatumDA HPLC[98]
Lesion after METHStriatumDA HPLC

Parkin OExpN.R.Lesion after MPTPSNTH IHC[142]

PINK1 KO24Mitochondrial ROS after paraquat, 6-OHDA, DA, or rotenoneStriatum, cortexAmplex red assay[29]

PINK1 KO6IL-1β, IL-12, and IL-10 after LPSStriatumELISA[104]

PINK1 KD20Lesion after paraquatSN, striatumTH IHC, DA HPLC[143]

PINK1 OExp2-3Lesion after MPTPSNTH IHC[144]

SNCA KO2Lesion after MPTPSN, striatumTH IHC[145]

SNCA KO2-3Lesion after MPTPStriatumDA HPLC[146]

SNCA KO2-3Lesion after MPTPStriatumDA HPLC[147]

SNCA KO9Lesion after MPTPSNTH IHC[148]

SNCA KO2-3Lesion after MPTPSN, striatumTH IHC, DA HPLC[149]

SNCA KON.R.Lesion after MPTPSN, striatumDAT IHC, DA HPLC[106]
Hydroxyl radicals after 3-NPStriatum4-HBA trapping

SNCA KO2-3Lesion after 6-OHDASNTH IHC[150]
Lesion after 6-OHDAStriatumDA HPLC

SNCA OExp A30P6Lesion after MPTPSN, striatumTH IHC, DA HPLC[151]

SNCA OExp A30P3-4, 6–8Lesion after MPTPSNTH IHC[152]
Lesion after MPTPStriatumDA HPLC at 3-4 mo., ↑ at 6–8 mo.
Lesion after rotenoneSN, striatumTH IHC, DA HPLC

SNCA OExp A53T2Lesion after MPTPSN, striatumTH IHC, DA HPLC[153]

SNCA OExp A53T9-10Lesion after MPTPMidbrainDA HPLC[154]

3-NT after MPTPOlfactory bulbWB

SNCA OExp A53T2, 12, 23Lesion after iron and/or paraquatSNTH IHC at 2 mo. and 12 mo., ↑ at 23 mo.[155]

2, 233-NT after iron and/or paraquatSNTH 3NT IF at 2 mo., ↑ at 23 mo.
12Nitrated α-syn after iron and/or paraquatSNTH nSYN IF

SNCA OExp A53T7Lesion after LPSSN, striatumTH IHC[156]
Nitrated α-syn after LPSMidbrainWBOExp are positive for nitrated α-syn only after LPS

SNCA OExp WT or A53T3-4Lesion after paraquatSNTH IHC[141]

SNCA OExp WT3-4Lesion after paraquatSNTH IHC[157]

SNCA OExp A53T A30P2-3Lesion after MPTPStriatumDAT IHC[158]

SNCA OExp A53T A30P6-7Lesion after paraquat+manebSN, striatumTH IHC, DA HPLC[159]

Abbreviations: 2-HBA: salicylate, 3NT: 3-nitrotyrosine, 6-OHDA: 6-hydroxydopamine, α-syn: α-synuclein, DA: dopamine, DAT: dopamine transporter, HPLC: High Pressure Liquid Chromatography, IHC: immunohistochemistry, IF: immunofluorescence, KO: knockout, KD: knockdown, LPS: lipopolysaccharide, METH: methamphetamine, mo: months, MPTP: 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine, OExp: overexpression, ROS: reactive oxygen species, SN: substantia nigra, TH: tyrosine hydroxylase, WB: Western blot, WT: wildtype, ↑: increased, : decreased, : not different.