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Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Volume 2012, Article ID 628352, 9 pages
Research Article

Low-Frequency Fatigue as an Indicator of Eccentric Exercise-Induced Muscle Injury: The Role of Vitamin E

1Exercise Physiology and Biochemistry Laboratory, Department of Physical Education and Sports Science at Serres, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 62110 Serres, Greece
2Department of Physical Education and Sport Science, University of Thessaly, Karies, 42100 Trikala, Greece
3Laboratory of Exercise, Health and Human Performance, Research Center, European University of Cyprus, 2404 Nicosia, Cyprus
4Laboratory of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece
5Laboratory of Physiology, Department of Physical Education and Sports Science, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece

Received 7 April 2012; Accepted 14 June 2012

Academic Editor: Chad M. Kerksick

Copyright © 2012 Antonios Kyparos et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


This study investigates whether vitamin E can attenuate eccentric exercise-induced soleus muscle injury as indicated by the amelioration of in situ isometric force decline following a low-frequency fatigue protocol (stimulation at 4 Hz for 5 min) and the ability of the muscle to recover 3 min after the termination of the fatigue protocol. Adult male Wistar rats were divided into vitamin E-supplemented or placebo-supplemented groups studied at rest, immediately post-exercise or 48 h post-exercise. Daily DL- 𝛼 -tocopheryl acetate intraperitoneal injections of 100 mg/kg body mass for 5 consecutive days prior to exercise doubled its plasma levels. Fatigue index and recovery index expressed as a percentage of the initial tension. FI at 0 h post- and 48 h post-exercise respectively was 88% ± 4.2% and 89% ± 6.8% in the vitamin E groups versus 76% ± 3% and 80% ± 11% in the placebo groups. RI was 99% ± 3.4% and 100% ± 6% in the vitamin E groups versus 82% ± 3.1% and 84% ± 5.9% in the placebo groups. Complementally to the traditionally recorded maximal force, low-frequency fatigue measures may be beneficial for assessing injury-induced decrease in muscle functionality.