Figure 1: Nutrient sensing signaling and stress response pathways in C. elegans and D. melanogaster. Dietary interventions promote healthy lifespan and stress resistance through at least three conserved nutrient sensing pathways, IIS, TOR, and sirtuins. Many nutraceuticals improve healthspan by regulating ROS/redox state, some are known to interact with the IIS and osmotic resistant pathways to extend lifespan, and some modulate lifespan extension via autophagy mediated by TOR signaling. Each nutraceutical is represented by a green circle and the location of the green circle indicates the possible target of a nutraceutical action*. Ac: açai, BB: blueberry, CA: caffeic acid, CB: cranberry, Co: cocoa, Cu: curcumin, GB: ginkgo biloba, GT: green tea, Ne: nectarine, OO: olive oil, Qu: quercetin, RD: rosa damascene, RA: rosmarinic acid, Sp: spermidine, TA: tannic acid, and TT: thioflavin T. *ROS presented in the figure indicates the regulation of ROS/redox state.