Figure 2: Antioxidant mechanism associated to S-allylcysteine (SAC). SAC can scavenge superoxide anion ( ), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), hydroxyl radical (OH), peroxynitrite radical (ONOO), and peroxyl radical (LOO) produced in neuronal cells, as well as hypochlorous acid (HOCl) and singlet oxygen (1O2) produced in microglial cells (blue lines). Moreover, SAC also exhibits chelating properties on Fe2+ and Cu2+ ions (red line), hence avoiding Fenton reaction. SAC also inhibits NF-kB translocation into the nucleus (green line), thus preventing apoptotic signaling. COX-2: cyclooxygenase-2, NOX: NADPH oxidase, nNOS: neuronal nitric oxide synthase, SOD: superoxide dismutase, XO: xanthine oxidase.