Table 1: Experimental approaches that prevent testicular and sperm damage during environmental hypoxia.

Hypobaric hypoxiaTreatmentMechanismResults versus injuryReference

AcuteCyproheptadine5-HT receptor blockerEffects on spermatogenesis and testosterone production [40]
ChronicCaloric restriction?Suppresses early rise in testosterone [31]
IntermittentAscorbic acid
Oxidative stress in testis and epididymis
▲Glutathione reductase activity in testis and epididymis
▲ Sperm count
Reversedthe effectsof oxidative stress intestis, epididymis, and sperm cells
(oral administration)
Preventsoxidativedamageof enzymes like superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidaseProtective effect against lipid peroxidation under oxidative stress and reduction in sperm motility
(intraperitoneal administration)
Levels of LH and FSH
Inhibition of aromatase
No protective effect in testis, and epididymis
No prevention of reduction in the numbers of sperm cells
Chronic and intermittentIbuprofenDecreases hypoxia-induced vasodilation?Protective effect against hypoxia-induced seminal lipid peroxidation