Figure 4: Quercetin induces mitochondrial biogenesis through the induction of HO-1/CO system in vivo. (a–c) C57BL/6 Mice were injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with quercetin (50 mg/kg) for 7 alternate days, with or without SnPP (50 μmol/kg) prior to injection with the addition of quercetin. Liver tissues were excised and analyzed for mitochondrial biogenesis in mice. Experimental analyses were performed with liver tissue. (a) Expressions of PGC-1, NRF-1, and TFAM in mRNA were determined by RT-PCR. 18 S rRNA served as the standard. (b) Expressions of COX IV protein were determined by Western blotting. α-tubulin served as the standard. (c) Expression of mtDNA content was quantified by real time PCR. Relative amounts of mtDNA and nDNA contents were compared. Results are expressed as mean ± SE of three independent experiments ( /group), and representative data are shown. * compared with the uninjected control group; compared with LPS injected mice group.