Figure 5: Dual-phase change in mROS and mROS-dependent mCa2+ formation during H2O2-induced oxidative stress in normal and ρ 0 RBA1 astrocytes. (a) ROS generation detected by DCF. (b) mCa2+ detected by Rhod-2. It should be noted that mROS formation and mROS-dependent mCa2+ concentration in control cells was higher than ρ 0 astrocytes during the early stage of H2O2 exposure. However, mitochondrial stress of mROS and mROS-dependent mCa2+ stress were significantly higher in ρ 0 astrocytes than control during long-term H2O2 exposure.