Classification of exposure conditions and demographics by Ashford and Miller (amended and supplemented by Winder).
|Group||Nature of exposure||Demographics|
|Industrial workers||Acute or chronic exposure to industrial chemicals||Primarily males;|
20–65 years old
|Office workers (in ‘‘tightly closed buildings’’)||Inadequate ventilation. Offgassing from construction or refurbishment materials or from office equipment. Tobacco smoke||More females than males. White-collar workers. 20–65 years old. School children|
|Contaminated communities ||Toxic waste sites. Contamination by nearby industry sites. Aerial pesticide spraying. Groundwater contamination. Other community exposures||Low to middle classes. All ages, male and female. Children or infants affected first or most; possible effects in pregnant women|
Indoor air (domestic). Pesticides, consumer products, and drugs
|White middle to upper classes, primarily females, 30–50 years old|