Table 1: Classification of exposure conditions and demographics by Ashford and Miller (amended and supplemented by Winder).

GroupNature of exposureDemographics

Industrial workersAcute or chronic exposure to industrial chemicalsPrimarily males;
20–65 years old

Office workers (in ‘‘tightly closed buildings’’)Inadequate ventilation. Offgassing from construction or refurbishment materials or from office equipment. Tobacco smokeMore females than males. White-collar workers. 20–65 years old. School children

Contaminated communities Toxic waste sites. Contamination by nearby industry sites. Aerial pesticide spraying. Groundwater contamination. Other community exposuresLow to middle classes. All ages, male and female. Children or infants affected first or most; possible effects in pregnant women

IndividualsHeterogeneous.
Indoor air (domestic). Pesticides, consumer products, and drugs
White middle to upper classes, primarily females, 30–50 years old