Table 1: Possible markers for cancer stem cells in inflammation-related cancer.

Etiologic agent/pathologic conditionAssociated cancerDetection of 8-nitroguaninePossible markers for cancer stem cells related to each cause [references]

ParasitesSHBladder cancerPatients [10, 11]Oct3/4 (patients with SH) [10]
CD44v6 (patients without SH) [11]
OVCholangiocarcinomaHamsters [1215]
Patients [16, 17]CD133, Oct3/4 [17]

VirusesHCV, Hepatocellular carcinomaPatients with HCV [18]CK19 [19]
HBVMice with HBV [DN]Nanog, CD133 [20]
HPVCervical carcinomaPatients [21]CK17 [22, 23]
CD44 (HPV16) [24]
Oct3/4 (HPV16) [25]
EBVNasopharyngeal carcinomaPatients [26]LMP2A ([27] and a lot)
LMP1, Bmi-1 [28]

BacteriaHPGastric cancerPatients [29, 30]SALL4, KLF5 [31]
KLF5 [32]
LgR5 [33]

Inflammatory diseasesIBDColorectal cancerMice [34]
LPOral squamous cell carcinomaPatients [35]Bmi-1 [36]
KRT15 [37]
BEBarrett’s esophageal adenocarcinomaPatients [38]Oct3/4 [39]
CD133 [40]
Musashi-1 [41]

OthersAsbestosMesothelioma, lung carcinomaMice [42]

SH: Schistosoma haematobium, OV: Opisthorchis viverrini, HCV: hepatitis C virus, HBV: hepatitis B virus, HPV: human papillomavirus, EBV: Epstein-Barr virus, HP: Helicobacter pylori, IBD: inflammatory bowel diseases, LP: lichen planus, BE: Barrett’s esophagus, DN: data not shown.