Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity / 2013 / Article / Tab 1

Review Article

A Review of Pterostilbene Antioxidant Activity and Disease Modification

Table 1

Antioxidant and disease modification mechanisms of pterostilbene.

Cell typeMechanismReferences

Breast
 Blueberry↑Mammary branching, ↑PTEN, mitotic rateWu et al. [15]
ProliferationSeeram et al. [16],
Boivin et al. [17]
Proliferation, PI3K/AkT/NK-κB, MMP, Ki-67, ↑caspase 3Adams et al. [18]
Cell viabilityRemsberg et al. [12]
 PterostilbeneCell viability, ↑apoptosis, ↑mitochondrial depolarization, ↑superoxide anion, ↑caspase 3/7Alosi et al. [19]
↑Caspase 3/7, ↑S phase, ↑superoxide anion, cell viability, ↑apoptosis Synergistic inhibition with TamoxifenMannal et al. [20]
↑Apoptosis, ↑caspase 3,GPx, ↑Bax, ↑p53, Bcl-2, Akt, MMP
↑Autophagy, mitotic and metastatic potential
Chakraborty et al. [21, 22]
↑Bax, ↑cytochrome C, ↑Smac/Diablo, ↑MnSODMoon et al. [23]

Cardiovascular
 Blueberry↑Mitochondrial depolarization threshold, myocardial infarction size ↑Ejection fractionAhmet et al. [30]
↑SOD1, ↑SOD2, ↑GSR, ↑TR-1, atherosclerosis lesionWu et al. [31]
 PterostilbeneROS in HMVECsYoudim et al. [32]
Proliferation, Akt, CDK, cyclin, Rb, PCNA in VSMCsPark et al. [33]
oxLDL-induced apoptosis, oxidative stress, MMP, Caspase 3/9 ↑Autophagy, LOX-1 signaling NF-κB, Bax and p53 in VECs Zhang et al. [34, 35]
ACE activity, LH in smokersMcAnulty et al. [39]

Esophagus
 Blueberry↑Antioxidant activity, IL-5, GRO/KCStoner et al. [41]

Stomach
 BlueberryProliferationBoivin et al. [17]
 PterostilbeneProliferation, ↑apoptosis, ↑cytochrome C, ↑caspases 1, 2, 3, 8 and 9 Bcl-XL, ↑Bad, ↑BaxPan at el. [43]

Colon
 BlueberryProliferationSeeram et al. [16],
Boivin et al. [17]
 PterostilbeneCell viabilityRemsberg et al. [12]
Aberrant crypt foci, iNOS, COX-2, ↑MUC-2Suh et al. [46]
Aberrant crypt foci, lymphoid nodules, NF-κB
iNOS, COX-2, ↑HO-1, ↑GR, Aldose reductase
Chiou et al. [47]
Tumor volume, NF-κB, Bcl-2, ↑Bax, ↑Bak, ↑Bad ↑Bid, ↑SOD2 ↑catalase, ↑GPx, ↑GR, ↑TR-1, synergistic inhibition with FOLFOXPriego et al. [48]

Hematology
 BlueberryROSYoudim et al. [51]
 PterostilbeneAAPH-induced hemolysis, GSH depletion, lipid peroxidationMikstacka et al. [52]

Liver
 BlueberryNqo1, ↑SOD, ↑GST, ↑Nrf-2, MDA, HA, ALT
↑Nrf-2, ↑Nqo1, ↑HO-1, ↑T-lymphocytes
Wang et al. [55, 56]
ALT, bilirubin, ↑GSH, TNF-α, IL-1β, lipid peroxidationOsman et al. [57]
Proliferation of hepatic cancer cellsSchmidt et al. [58]
 Pterostilbene Protect gap junctional intercellular communication
↑Dephosphorylation of Cx43
Kim et al. [59]
Proliferation of hepatic cancer cellsRemsberg et al. [12]
Cell viability, antioxidant activityHasiah et al. [60]
MicrometastasisPI3K, Akt, NF-κB, MMP-9, VEGF, EGF
Lung metastasis
Pan et al. [61]

Pancreas
 Pterostilbene Cell viability, ↑apoptosis, ↑caspase 3/7, G0/G and S phase arrestMannal et al. [63]
Tumor volume, ↑apoptosis gene expression, ↑cytochrome C, MnSOD ↑Smac/DIABLO, JAK/STAT3, lipase secretion, IL-1β, IL-6McCormack et al. [64, 70]
Synergistic inhibition of cancer proliferation with antioxidant EGCGKostin et al. [69]

Metabolic
 Diabetes
  Blueberry↑SOD, ↑GPx, HbA1cNemes-Nagy et al. [77]
  Pterocarpus marsupium  Hyperinsulinemia, hypertriglyemia, hyperglycemiaGrover et al. [73]
  PterostilbenePlasma glucose, rat body weightManickam et al. [74]
↑Plasma insulin, plasma glucose, HbA1c, glucose-6-phosphatase
Fructose-1, 6-biphosphatase, ↑hexokinase, comparable to metformin
Pari and Satheesh [75]
Oxidative stress, ↑GSH, ↑GST, ↑SOD, ↑GPx, ↑catalase
Portal triad inflammation, renal damage
Satheesh and Pari [76]

Hyperlipidemia
 PterostilbenePreadipocyte growth, fat droplet formation, triacylglycerolHsu et al. [78]
↑Adiponectin, leptin, LDL, ↑HDL, PPAR-γ, C/EBP-α, resistin FAS, comparable to clofibrateRimando et al. [79]

Neurology
 Blueberry↑Maze performance, amyloid beta burden, CREB, pPKCγJoseph et al. [84, 85]
↑GABA potentiation, ↑GSHBickford et al. [86]
↑Object memory recognitionMalin et al. [87]
↑Maze performanceAndres-Lacueva et al. [88]
↑Hippocampal plasticity, IGF-1, IGF-2, ERKCasadesus et al. [89]
 PterostilbeneIschemic brain damageSweeney et al. [90]
↑Maze performance, ↑cognitive performanceJoseph et al. [83]
↑MnSOD, ↑PPAR-α, phosphorylated JnK and tauChang et al. [91]

Prostate
 BlueberryCancer cell growthSchmidt et al. [58]
MMP, ↑TIMPMatchett et al. [92, 93]
 PterostilbeneCell viabilityRemsberg et al. [12]
↑Apoptosis, ↑caspase 3, GPx,GR, ↑Bax, ↑p53, Bcl-2, Akt
MMP, ↑GSH
Chakraborty et al. [21]
↑Apoptosis, ↑p53, ↑p21, G1 phase arrestLin et al. [94]
↑Apoptosis, G1/S phase arrest, ↑CDNK1A and CDNK1B, PSA Wang et al. [95]

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