Quercetin Induces Mitochondrial Mediated Apoptosis and Protective Autophagy in Human Glioblastoma U373MG Cells
Inhibition of autophagy by chloroquine enhances apoptotic cell death. Cells were treated with 50 μM chloroquine for 2 h before quercetin treatment. (a) Cell viability was measured by the MTT assay. Values are the mean ± standard deviation (SD) of three independent experiments. a: significantly different from the control, ; b: significantly different from the control, . (b) The percentage of cells undergoing mitochondrial dysfunction. Treated cells were trypsinized, stained with JC-1, washed, and analyzed by flow cytometry. (c) Caspase-9 and (d) caspase-3 activities. All data are the mean ± SD of three independent experiments. a: significantly different from the control, . (e) Analysis of apoptosis-related protein and LC3II expression by Western blotting. CQ: 50 μM chloroquine; Q: 75 μM quercetin.
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