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Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Volume 2014, Article ID 135650, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/135650
Research Article

Indices of Paraoxonase and Oxidative Status Do Not Enhance the Prediction of Subclinical Cardiovascular Disease in Mixed-Ancestry South Africans

1Division of Chemical Pathology, Faculty of Health Sciences, National Health Laboratory Service (NHLS) and University of Stellenbosch, Cape Town, South Africa
2NCRP for Cardiovascular and Metabolic Diseases, South African Medical Research Council & and University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
3Division of Chemical Pathology, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
4Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Health and Wellness Science, Cape Peninsula University of Technology, P.O. Box 1906, Bellville, Cape Town 7530, South Africa

Received 30 September 2013; Accepted 2 March 2014; Published 27 March 2014

Academic Editor: Dalton Valentim Vassallo

Copyright © 2014 M. Macharia et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

We evaluated the association of indices of paraoxonase (PON1) and oxidative status with subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) in mixed-ancestry South Africans. Participants were 491 adults (126 men) who were stratified by diabetes status and body mass index (BMI). Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) was used as a measure of subclinical CVD. Indices of PON1 and oxidative status were determined by measuring levels and activities (paraoxonase and arylesterase) of PON1, antioxidant activity (ferric reducing antioxidant power and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity), and lipid peroxidation markers (malondialdehyde and oxidized LDL). Diabetic subjects (28.9%) displayed a significant decrease in PON1 status and antioxidant activity as well as increase in oxidized LDL and malondialdehyde. A similar profile was apparent across increasing BMI categories. CIMT was higher in diabetic than nondiabetic subjects but showed no variation across BMI categories. Overall, CIMT correlated negatively with indices of antioxidant activity and positively with measures of lipid oxidation. Sex, age, BMI, and diabetes altogether explained 29.2% of CIMT, with no further improvement from adding PON1 and/or antioxidant status indices. Though indices of PON1 and oxidative status correlate with CIMT, their measurements may not be useful for identifying subjects at high CVD risk in this population.