Figure 4: LBP improves the phosphorylation levels of JNK and GSK3β via regulation of PI3K/AKT signaling. (a) 200 μM palmitate-stimulated HepG2 cells were treated with LBP for 12 hrs in dose-dependent manner. Immunoblotting analysis of LBP-mediated phosphorylation levels of IRS-1, PI3K, AKT, JNK1/2, and GSK3β. (b) Cells were treated with 10 μM LY294002 for 2 hrs and 2 μM Wortmannin for 2 hrs and then incubated for 12 hrs with 300 μg/mL LBP. Immunoblotting analyzed phosphorylation of LBP-mediated AKT, JNK, and GSK3β. Representative western blots are shown. (c) Glycogen concentrations (μg/5 × 105 cells) and (d) glucose production (μmol/106 cells) of LBP-treated cells in the presence of palmitate. Data was expressed as means ± SEM ( ), # , ## .