Figure 5: LBP increases Nrf2 phosphorylation and induces Nrf2/ARE pathway via activation of PI3K/AKT signaling. (a) 200 μM palmitate-stimulated HepG2 cells were treated with LBP for 12 hrs in dose-dependent manner. Phospho-Nrf2, total Nrf2, HO-1, SOD2, and CAT were detected by western blot analysis. (b) 300 μg/mL LBP-treated and untreated cells in the presence of 200 μM palmitate. Representative images of phospho-Nrf2 localization (400x). (c) Cells were treated with 10 μM LY294002 for 2 hrs and 2 μM Wortmannin for 2 hrs and then incubated for 12 hrs with 300 μg/mL LBP. Immunoblotting analyzed LBP-mediated AKT, Nrf2 phosphorylation, HO-1, SOD2, and CAT. Representative western blots are shown. (d) Cells were treated as following previous described and then incubated for 1 h with 50 μM DHE. Representative images of intracellular ROS level (200x).