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  • Antioxidant Function of Steen Solution, Mohamed S. A. Mohamed
    Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
    Letter to the Editor (2 pages), Article ID 578353, Volume 2014 (2014)
    Published 23 November 2014
Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Volume 2014, Article ID 242180, 10 pages
Research Article

New Insights into the Steen Solution Properties: Breakthrough in Antioxidant Effects via NOX2 Downregulation

1Department of Internal Medicine and Medical Specialties, Sapienza University of Rome, 00161 Rome (RM), Italy
2Department of Medico-Surgical Sciences and Biotechnologies, Sapienza University of Rome, 04100 Latina (LT), Italy
3Department of Thoracic Surgery, Sapienza University of Rome, 00161 Rome (RM), Italy
4Fondazione Eleonora Lorillard Spencer Cenci, 00185 Rome (RM), Italy
5Department of Heart and Great Vessels, Sapienza University of Rome, 00161 Rome (RM), Italy
6Department of AngioCardioNeurology, IRCCS NeuroMed, 86077 Pozzilli (IS), Italy

Received 24 February 2014; Accepted 13 March 2014; Published 16 April 2014

Academic Editor: Daniela Giustarini

Copyright © 2014 Roberto Carnevale et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) allows perfusion and reconditioning of retrieved lungs for organ transplantation. The Steen solution is specifically designed for this procedure but the mechanism through which it elicits its activity is still to be fully clarified. We speculated that Steen solution may encompass antioxidant properties allowing a reestablishment of pulmonary tissue homeostasis. Blood samples from 10 healthy volunteers were recruited. Platelets and white cells were incubated with Steen solution or buffer solution as control and stimulated with suitable agonists. Reactive oxidant species (ROS), soluble NOX2 (sNOX2-derived peptide), a marker of NADPH oxidase activation, translocation to cell membrane and isoprostanes production, as marker of oxidative stress, and nitric oxide (NO), a powerful vasodilator and antioxidant molecule, were measured upon cell stimulation. The Steen solution significantly inhibited translocation and NOX2 activation in platelets and white cells. Consistent with this finding was the reduction of oxidative stress as documented by a significantly lowered formation of ROS and isoprostanes by both platelets and white cells. Finally, cell incubation with Steen solution resulted in enhanced generation of NO. Herewith, we provide the first evidence that Steen solution possesses antioxidant properties via downregulation of NADPH oxidase activity and enhanced production of NO.