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Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Volume 2014, Article ID 343154, 12 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/343154
Review Article

Protein Redox Modification as a Cellular Defense Mechanism against Tissue Ischemic Injury

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, UNT System College of Pharmacy, University of North Texas Health Science Center, 3500 Camp Bowie Boulevard, RES-314E, Fort Worth, TX 76107, USA

Received 3 March 2014; Accepted 16 April 2014; Published 5 May 2014

Academic Editor: Jianping Jin

Copyright © 2014 Liang-Jun Yan. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Protein oxidative or redox modifications induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS) or reactive nitrogen species (RNS) not only can impair protein function, but also can regulate and expand protein function under a variety of stressful conditions. Protein oxidative modifications can generally be classified into two categories: irreversible oxidation and reversible oxidation. While irreversible oxidation usually leads to protein aggregation and degradation, reversible oxidation that usually occurs on protein cysteine residues can often serve as an “on and off” switch that regulates protein function and redox signaling pathways upon stress challenges. In the context of ischemic tolerance, including preconditioning and postconditioning, increasing evidence has indicated that reversible cysteine redox modifications such as S-sulfonation, S-nitrosylation, S-glutathionylation, and disulfide bond formation can serve as a cellular defense mechanism against tissue ischemic injury. In this review, I highlight evidence of cysteine redox modifications as protective measures in ischemic injury, demonstrating that protein redox modifications can serve as a therapeutic target for attenuating tissue ischemic injury. Prospectively, more oxidatively modified proteins will need to be identified that can play protective roles in tissue ischemic injury, in particular, when the oxidative modifications of such identified proteins can be enhanced by pharmacological agents or drugs that are available or to be developed.