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Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Volume 2014, Article ID 572491, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/572491
Review Article

Isoprostanes and Neuroprostanes as Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in Neurodegenerative Diseases

1Department of Physical Medicine, Medical University of Lodz, Hallera 1, Lodz, Poland
2Neurorehabilitation Ward, III General Hospital in Lodz, Milionowa 14, Lodz, Poland
3Department of General Biochemistry, Faculty of Biology and Environmental Protection, University of Lodz, Pomorska 141/143, 90-236 Lodz, Poland
4Department of Physiology and Pharmacology “Vittorio Erspamer”, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy
5Department of Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy with Division of Medical Analytics, Wroclaw Medical University, Borowska 211, 50-556 Wroclaw, Poland

Received 12 February 2014; Revised 28 March 2014; Accepted 31 March 2014; Published 29 April 2014

Academic Editor: Kota V. Ramana

Copyright © 2014 Elżbieta Miller et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Accumulating data shows that oxidative stress plays a crucial role in neurodegenerative disorders. The literature data indicate that in vivo or postmortem cerebrospinal fluid and brain tissue levels of F2-isoprostanes (F2-IsoPs) especially F4-neuroprotanes (F4-NPs) are significantly increased in some neurodegenerative diseases: multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease, and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Central nervous system is the most metabolically active organ of the body characterized by high requirement for oxygen and relatively low antioxidative activity, what makes neurons and glia highly susceptible to destruction by reactive oxygen/nitrogen species and neurodegeneration. The discovery of F2-IsoPs and F4-NPs as markers of lipid peroxidation caused by the free radicals has opened up new areas of investigation regarding the role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of human neurodegenerative diseases. This review focuses on the relationship between F2-IsoPs and F4-NPs as biomarkers of oxidative stress and neurodegenerative diseases. We summarize the knowledge of these novel biomarkers of oxidative stress and the advantages of monitoring their formation to better define the involvement of oxidative stress in neurological diseases.