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Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Volume 2014, Article ID 642793, 12 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/642793
Research Article

High-Dialysate-Glucose-Induced Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial-Mediated Apoptosis in Human Peritoneal Mesothelial Cells

1Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan
2School of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, College of Medical Science and Technology, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan
3Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kuan-Tien General Hospital, Taichung 433, Taiwan
4Graduate Institute of Medical Science, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan

Received 29 January 2014; Revised 30 March 2014; Accepted 1 April 2014; Published 5 May 2014

Academic Editor: Lubomir Prochazka

Copyright © 2014 Kuan-Yu Hung et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Human peritoneal mesothelial cells (HPMCs) are a critical component of the peritoneal membrane and play a pivotal role in dialysis adequacy. Loss of HPMCs can contribute to complications in peritoneal dialysis. Compelling evidence has shown that high-dialysate glucose is a key factor causing functional changes and cell death in HPMCs. We investigated the mechanism of HPMC apoptosis induced by high-dialysate glucose, particularly the role of mitochondria in the maintenance of HPMCs. HPMCs were incubated at glucose concentrations of 5 mM, 84 mM, 138 mM, and 236 mM. Additionally, N-acetylcysteine (NAC) was used as an antioxidant to clarify the mechanism of high-dialysate-glucose-induced apoptosis. Exposing HPMCs to high-dialysate glucose resulted in substantial apoptosis with cytochrome c release, followed by caspase activation and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage. High-dialysate glucose induced excessive reactive oxygen species production and lipid peroxidation as well as oxidative damage to DNA. Mitochondrial fragmentation, multiple mitochondrial DNA deletions, and dissipation of the mitochondrial membrane potential were also observed. The mitochondrial dysfunction and cell death were suppressed using NAC. These results indicated that mitochondrial dysfunction is one of the main causes of high-dialysate-glucose-induced HPMC apoptosis.