Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Volume 2014, Article ID 860479, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/860479
Review Article

The Role of Antioxidants in Skin Cancer Prevention and Treatment

1Department of Dermatology, Cambridge University Hospitals, Addenbrooke’s Hospital, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 0QQ, UK
2Faculty of Health Studies, Zdravstvena pot 5, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
3Dermatology Centre Parmova, Parmova Street 53, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia

Received 16 December 2013; Accepted 24 February 2014; Published 26 March 2014

Academic Editor: Eugene A. Kiyatkin

Copyright © 2014 Aleksandar Godic et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. S. K. Katiyar and H. Mukhtar, “Green tea polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate treatment to mouse skin prevents UVB-induced infiltration of leukocytes, depletion of antigen-presenting cells, and oxidative stress,” Journal of Leukocyte Biology, vol. 69, no. 5, pp. 719–726, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. “International program on chemical safety, Environmental health criteria 160, Ultraviolet radiation,” 1994, http://www.inchem.org/documents/ehc/ehc/ehc160.htm.
  3. International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), “Summaries and Evaluations, Solar and ultraviolet radiation. Volume 55,” 1992, http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Monographs/vol55/volume55.pdf.
  4. C. G. Fraga, P. A. Motchnik, M. K. Shigenaga, H. J. Helbock, R. A. Jacob, and B. N. Ames, “Ascorbic acid protects against endogenous oxidative DNA damage in human sperm,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 88, no. 24, pp. 11003–11006, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. J. Fuchs, M. E. Huflejt, L. M. Rothfuss, D. S. Wilson, G. Carcamo, and L. Packer, “Acute effects of near ultraviolet and visible light on the cutaneous antioxidant defense system,” Photochemistry and photobiology, vol. 50, no. 6, pp. 739–744, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. B. Halliwell and J. Gutteridge, Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine, Clarendon Press, Oxford, UK, 3rd edition, 1999.
  7. K. H. Cheeseman and T. F. Slater, “An introduction to free radical biochemistry,” British Medical Bulletin, vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 481–493, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. Y. Shindo, E. Witt, and L. Packer, “Antioxidant defense mechanisms in murine epidermis and dermis and their responses to ultraviolet light,” Journal of Investigative Dermatology, vol. 100, no. 3, pp. 260–265, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. Y. Shindo, E. Witt, D. Han et al., “Recovery of antioxidants and reduction in lipid hydroperoxides in murine epidermis and dermis after acute ultraviolet radiation exposure,” Photodermatology Photoimmunology and Photomedicine, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 183–191, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. Y. Shindo, E. Witt, D. Han, W. Epstein, and L. Packer, “Enzymic and non-enzymic antioxidants in epidermis and dermis of human skin,” Journal of Investigative Dermatology, vol. 102, no. 1, pp. 122–124, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. J. Thiele, C. O. Barland, R. Ghadially, and P. Elias, “Permeability and antioxidant barriers in aged skin,” in Skin Aging, B. Gilchrest and J. Krutmann, Eds., Springer, Berlin, Germany, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  12. S. U. Weber, J. J. Thiele, C. E. Cross, and L. Packer, “Vitamin C, uric acid, and glutathione gradients in murine stratum corneum and their susceptibility to ozone exposure,” Journal of Investigative Dermatology, vol. 113, no. 6, pp. 1128–1132, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. A. Poswig, J. Wenk, P. Brenneisen et al., “Adaptive antioxidant response of manganese-superoxide dismutase following repetitive UVA irradiation,” Journal of Investigative Dermatology, vol. 112, no. 1, pp. 13–18, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. C. S. Sander, H. Chang, S. Salzmann et al., “Photoaging is associated with protein oxidation in human skin In Vivo,” Journal of Investigative Dermatology, vol. 118, no. 4, pp. 618–625, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. F. McArdle, L. E. Rhodes, R. Parslew, C. I. A. Jack, P. S. Friedmann, and M. J. Jackson, “UVR-induced oxidative stress in human skin in vivo: effects of oral vitamin C supplementation,” Free Radical Biology and Medicine, vol. 33, no. 10, pp. 1355–1362, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. R. Pandel, B. Poljšak, A. Godic, and R. Dahmane, “Skin photoaging and the role of antioxidants in its prevention,” ISRN Dermatology, vol. 2013, Article ID 930164, 11 pages, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  17. B. Poljsak, R. Dahmane, and A. Godic, “Skin and antioxidants,” Journal of Cosmetic and Laser Therapy, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 107–113, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  18. B. Poljsak, M. Pesti, P. Jamnik, and P. Raspor, “Impact of environmental pollutants on oxidation-reduction processes in the cell environment,” in Encyclopedia of Environmental Health, J. Nriagu, Ed., Elsevier, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  19. L. Packer and G. Valacchi, “Antioxidants and the response of skin to oxidative stress: vitamin E as a key indicator,” Skin Pharmacology and Applied Skin Physiology, vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 282–290, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. J. J. Thiele, “Oxidative targets in the stratum corneum: a new basis for antioxidative strategies,” Skin Pharmacology and Applied Skin Physiology, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 87–91, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. E. F. Ritter, M. Axelrod, K. W. Minn et al., “Modulation of ultraviolet light-induced epidermal damage: beneficial effects of tocopherol,” Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, vol. 100, no. 4, pp. 973–980, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. E. S. Krol, K. A. Kramer-Stickland, and D. C. Liebler, “Photoprotective action of topically applied vitamin E,” Drug Metabolism Reviews, vol. 32, no. 3-4, pp. 413–420, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. W. Stahl and J. Krutmann, “Systemic photoprotection through carotenoids,” Hautarzt, vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 281–285, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. H. Sies and W. Stahl, “Carotenoids and UV protection,” Photochemical and Photobiological Sciences, vol. 3, no. 8, pp. 749–752, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. W. Stahl, U. Heinrich, H. Jungmann, H. Sies, and H. Tronnier, “Carotenoids and carotenoids plus vitamin E protect against ultraviolet light-induced erythema in humans,” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 71, no. 3, pp. 795–798, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. U. Heinrich, C. Gärtner, M. Wiebusch et al., “Supplementation with β-carotene or a similar amount of mixed carotenoids protects humans from UV-induced erythema,” Journal of Nutrition, vol. 133, no. 1, pp. 98–101, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. E. R. Greenberg, J. A. Baron, T. A. Stukel et al., “A clinical trial of beta carotene to prevent basal-cell and squamous-cell cancers of the skin,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 323, no. 12, pp. 789–795, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. C. H. Hennekens, J. E. Buring, J. E. Manson et al., “Lack of effect of long-term supplementation with beta carotene on the incidence of malignant neoplasms and cardiovascular disease,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 334, no. 18, pp. 1145–1149, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. J. Fuch, M. Podda, and T. Zollner, “Redox modulation and oxidative stress in dermatotoxicology,” in Environmental Stressors in Health and Disease, J. Fuchs and L. Packer, Eds., Marcel Dekker, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  30. H. L. Gensler, R. R. Watson, S. Moriguchi, and G. T. Bowden, “Effects of dietary retinyl palmitate or 13-cis-retinoic acid on the promotion of tumors in mouse skin,” Cancer Research, vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 967–970, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. A. M. Abdel-Galil, H. Wrba, and M. M. El-Mofty, “Prevention of 3-methylcholanthrene-induced skin tumors in mice by simultaneous application of 13-cis-retinoic acid and retinyl palmitate (vitamin A palmitate),” Experimental Pathology, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 97–102, 1984. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. K. Muta-Takada, T. Terada, H. Yamanishi et al., “Coenzyme Q10protects against oxidative stress-induced cell death and enhances the synthesis of basement membrane components in dermal and epidermal cells,” BioFactors, vol. 35, no. 5, pp. 435–441, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. M. Inui, M. Ooe, K. Fujii, H. Matsunaka, M. Yoshida, and M. Ichihashi, “Mechanisms of inhibitory effects of CoQ10 on UVB-induced wrinkle formation in vitro and in vivo,” BioFactors, vol. 32, no. 1–4, pp. 237–243, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. B. S. Choi, H. S. Song, H. R. Kim et al., “Effect of coenzyme Q10 on cutaneous healing in skin-incised mice,” Archives of Pharmacal Research, vol. 32, no. 6, pp. 907–913, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. R. M. Tyrrell and M. Pidoux, “Endogenous glutathione protects human skin fibroblasts against the cytotoxic action of UVB, UVA and near-visible radiations,” Photochemistry and Photobiology, vol. 44, no. 5, pp. 561–564, 1986. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. R. M. Tyrrell and M. Pidoux, “Correlation between endogenous glutathione content and sensitivity of cultured human skin cells to radiation at defined wavelengths in the solar ultraviolet range,” Photochemistry and Photobiology, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 405–412, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. M. J. Connor and L. A. Wheeler, “Depletion of cutaneous glutathione by ultraviolet radiation,” Photochemistry and Photobiology, vol. 46, no. 2, pp. 239–245, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. S. K. Katiyar, “Skin photoprotection by green tea: antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects,” Current drug targets: Immune, endocrine and metabolic disorders, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 234–242, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. P. K. Vayalil, C. A. Elments, and S. K. Katiyar, “Treatment of green tea polyphenols in hydrophilic cream prevents UVB-induced oxidation of lipids and proteins, depletion of antioxidant enzymes and phosphorylation of MAPK proteins in SKH-1 hairless mouse skin,” Carcinogenesis, vol. 24, no. 5, pp. 927–936, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. F. Afaq and H. Mukhtar, “Photochemoprevention by botanical antioxidants,” Skin Pharmacology and Applied Skin Physiology, vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 297–306, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. H. Schenk, M. Klein, W. Erdbrügger, W. Dröge, and K. Schulze-Osthoff, “Distinct effects of thioredoxin and antioxidants on the activation of transcription factors NF-κB and AP-1,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 91, no. 5, pp. 1672–1676, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. F. Dreher, N. Denig, B. Gabard, D. A. Schwindt, and H. I. Maibach, “Effect of topical antioxidants on UV-induced erythema formation when administered after exposure,” Dermatology, vol. 198, no. 1, pp. 52–55, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. P. Gao, H. Zhang, R. Dinavahi et al., “HIF-dependent antitumorigenic effect of antioxidants in vivo,” Cancer Cell, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 230–238, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus