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Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Volume 2015, Article ID 121925, 11 pages
Research Article

Choline and Cystine Deficient Diets in Animal Models with Hepatocellular Injury: Evaluation of Oxidative Stress and Expression of RAGE, TNF-α, and IL-1β

1Faculdade de Nutrição, Universidade Federal de Alagoas (UFAL), Campus A. C. Simões, Avenida Lourival Melo Mota, S/N, Tabuleiro dos Martins, 57072-970 Maceió, AL, Brazil
2Instituto de Química e Biotecnologia (IQB), Universidade Federal de Alagoas (UFAL), Avenida Lourival Melo Mota, s/n, Cidade Universitária, 57072-900 Maceió, AL, Brazil
3Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia de Alagoas, 57020-600 Maceió, AL, Brazil
4Programa de Pós Graduação em Ciências da Saúde (PPGCS), Universidade Federal de Alagoas (UFAL), Campus A. C. Simões, Avenida Lourival Melo Mota, s/n, Tabuleiro dos Martins, 57072-970 Maceió, AL, Brazil
5Instituto de Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, 57072-900 Maceió, AL, Brazil
6Centro de Estudos em Estresse Oxidativo (CEEO), Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto de Ciências Básicas da Saúde (ICBS), Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Rua Ramiro Barcelos 2600 Anexo, Santana, 90035003 Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil
7INCT de Bioanalítica, UNICAMP, 13083-861 Campinas, SP, Brazil

Received 17 November 2014; Revised 15 May 2015; Accepted 18 May 2015

Academic Editor: Matthew C. Zimmerman

Copyright © 2015 Juliana Célia F. Santos et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


This study aims to evaluate the effects of diets deficient in choline and/or cystine on hepatocellular injury in animal models (young male Wistar rats, aged 21 days), by monitoring some of the oxidative stress biomarkers and the expression of RAGE, TNF-α, and IL-1β. The animals were divided into 6 groups () and submitted to different diets over 30 days: AIN-93 diet (standard, St), AIN-93 choline deficient (CD) diet and AIN-93 choline and cystine deficient (CCD) diet, in the pellet (pl) and powder (pw) diet forms. Independently of the diet form, AIN-93 diet already led to hepatic steatosis and CD/CCD diets provoked hepatic damage. The increase of lipid peroxidation, represented by the evaluation of thiobarbituric acid reactive species, associated with the decrease of levels of antioxidant enzymes, were the parameters with higher significance toward redox profile in this model of hepatic injury. Regarding inflammation, in relation to TNF-α, higher levels were evidenced in , while, for IL-1β, no significant alteration was detected. RAGE expression was practically the same in all groups, with exception of versus . These results together confirm that AIN-93 causes hepatic steatosis and choline and/or cysteine deficiencies produce important hepatic injury associated with oxidative stress and inflammatory profiles.