Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity / 2015 / Article / Fig 1

Review Article

Vitamin A and Retinoids as Mitochondrial Toxicants

Figure 1

A schematic diagram summarizing the effects of in vivo vitamin A supplementation on mitochondrial function regarding the mitochondrial electron transfer chain (METC) enzyme activity. Mitochondrial dysfunction may lead to increased production through electron leakage and partial reduction of O2. Mn-SOD converts to H2O2 and, together with MAO, favors an increase in the levels of H2O2 in different cell types (please see text for details). H2O2 is able to react with iron ions generating (the most powerful ROS) through Fenton chemistry reaction (not shown), for example, leading to widespread redox disturbances.

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