Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 172493, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/172493
Review Article

P2X7 Receptor as a Key Player in Oxidative Stress-Driven Cell Fate in Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis

Environmental Health and Disease Laboratory, Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208, USA

Received 31 December 2014; Accepted 17 February 2015

Academic Editor: Peter Backx

Copyright © 2015 Saurabh Chatterjee and Suvarthi Das. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Incidences of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease parallels increase in the global obesity epidemic. NAFLD has been shown to be associated with risks of cardiometabolic disorders and kidney disturbances. It is accompanied by insulin and leptin resistance that complicate the diagnosis and treatment of this public health menace. Though significant research is underway for understanding the molecular mechanisms of NAFLD and its subsequent inflammatory and fibrotic manifestations like nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, the role of purinergic receptors has been unclear. It is increasingly being recognized that damage associated molecular patterns like NAD and ATP that are released from injured cells via hepatocellular injury either by oxidative stress or lipotoxicity from steatosis activate the purinergic receptor. Based on evidence from inflammatory responses in the airways and vasculature and autoimmune complications in humans and rodents, it is beyond doubt that hepatocellular inflammation such as that seen in NASH can result from the activation of purinergic receptors. This event can result in the formation of inflammasomes and can be an important pathway for the progression of NASH. The present review evaluates the current knowledge of the role of oxidative stress and its signaling via P2X7 receptors in hepatocellular injury that might contribute to the NASH pathophysiology.