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Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Volume 2015, Article ID 329306, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/329306
Research Article

Efficacy of N-Acetylcysteine, Glutathione, and Ascorbic Acid in Acute Toxicity of Paraoxon to Wistar Rats: Survival Study

1Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain, UAE
2Department of Pharmacodynamics, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary
3Department of Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapy, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary

Received 19 December 2014; Accepted 16 March 2015

Academic Editor: Sanghamitra Raha

Copyright © 2015 Syed M. Nurulain et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

There are a great number of reports with assertions that oxidative stress is produced by organophosphorus compound (OPC) poisoning and is a cofactor of mortality and morbidity in OPC toxicity. In addition, antioxidants have been suggested as adjuncts to standard therapy. However, there is no substantial evidence for the benefit of the use of antioxidants in survival after acute intoxication of OPCs. The present study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of three non-enzymatic antioxidants (NEAOs), N-acetylcysteine (NAC), glutathione (GSH), and ascorbic acid (AA), in acute intoxication of adult male Wister rats with paraoxon. The efficacy of the antioxidants was estimated as both a pretreatment and a concurrent application along with the standard oxime, pralidoxime (2-PAM). Relative risk of death after 48 hours of application was estimated by Cox regression analysis. The results revealed no benefit of either tested NEAO to the improvement in survival of experimental rats. The application of these antioxidants was found to be deleterious when administered along with pralidoxime compared to the treatment with pralidoxime alone. It has been concluded that the tested non-enzymatic antioxidants are not useful in acute toxicity for improving survival rates. However, the individual toxic dynamics of diversified OPCs should not be overlooked and further studies with different OPCs are suggested.