Sulforaphane (SFN) activation of Nrf2 signaling. SFN activates three mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs): extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38; these may stimulate Nrf2 activation. SFN may also activate protein kinase C (PKC), which directly phosphorylates Nrf2. Alternatively SFN activates Nrf2 through phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and protein kinase B (AKT). Ultimately, Nrf2 phosphorylation triggers nuclear translocation and induction of antioxidant-response element- (ARE-) mediated gene transcription, reducing oxidative stress.